- 0.0.1 Section A
- 0.0.2 Toxicity is Relevant
- 0.0.3 Section A
- 0.0.4 The Fundamental Mechanisms of Sauna Detoxification
- 0.0.5 Section B
- 0.0.6 Different types of Sauna Detoxifications
- 0.0.7 Sauna preceded with Niacin Flush
- 0.0.8 When to begin
- 0.0.9 Enhancement Supplementation
- 0.0.10 Binders:
- 0.0.11 cholestyramine Fibers, Clay and Activated Charcoal
- 0.0.12 Electrolyte Supplementation
- 0.0.13 Vitamin C
- 0.0.14 Caloric Restriction
- 0.0.15 Individual Circumstances
- 0.0.16 Exercises
- 0.0.17 Major Challenge: Toxic redistribution enterohepatic recirculation
- 0.0.18 Section C
- 0.0.19 Evidence
- 1 Methamphetamine exposure and chronic illness in police officers: significant improvement with sauna-based detoxification therapy.
- 2 Evaluation of a detoxification regimen for fat stored xenobiotics.
Most people throughout the world have accrued a significant body burden of toxicants, placing them at high health risks for chronic diseases. In this analysis, I will first look at a few mechanisms that help to understand the power of heat-based detoxification. (Section A) In a second part, I will follow-up with an examination of different sauna detox approaches and zero in on one of ones that appears to be well supported evidence-wise and in holistic practice (Section B). Thereafter, I will look at the supporting evidence, including via testimony (Section C) and wrap up with a word on typology, meaning which saunas appear to be the best (Section D).
Toxicity is Relevant
Because the Conventional medicine and the Government’s NIH claims that detoxification is irrelevant in medicine (Source) and that the body metabolic detoxification pathways are sufficient to get rid of today’s toxin body burden, a word on the Pharma-Government’s misleading claims is called for. First off
There is compelling evidence that various chemical agents are important determinants of myriad health afflictions–several xenobiotics have the potential to disrupt reproductive, developmental, and neurological processes and some agents in common use have carcinogenic, epigenetic, endocrine-disrupting, and immune-altering action. Some toxicants appear to have biological effect at miniscule levels and certain chemical compounds are persistent and bioaccumulative within the human body
The Fundamental Mechanisms of Sauna Detoxification
One of the central mechanism that governs the detoxification process is based on hyperthermia, heat that helps to dislodge toxins and toxicants from fats, where they often get stored. Once toxins are released from adipose tissue, some get flushed out by sweat and then carried off by the blood to the liver, kidney, and GI tract.
Section under construction
Different types of Sauna Detoxifications
Sauna preceded with Niacin Flush
Many people are familiar with the Hubbard Protocol for sauna detoxification, which has been shown to be effective for those with serious toxic load issues, and was even used with success on emergency workers who were exposed to chemicals at the World Trade Center 9/11 disaster site.
The Hubbard Protocol is quite intense and requires a great deal of time spent in the sauna on a regular basis. The sauna detoxification protocol that follows is more holistic for the average patient and is designed to maximize detoxification without causing undue stress to the patient.
Heat helps to destabilize lipophilic compounds just enough so that they can become mobilized by the fluids that are simultaneously released during heat exposure. Some compounds can be liberated directly into the sweat while others will be transported by the blood stream into the liver for metabolization and/or conjugation.
The vasodilatation that is induced by heat exposure provides an increased blood flow to these organs. Nicotinic acid (niacin or niacinamide) can induce flushing in doses above 50 mg which will subsequently increase blood flow to the liver and kidney.
It is often used as a part of detoxification protocol because of what is referred to as rebound lipolysis. High dose niacin is used therapeutically to inhibit free fatty acid release, decrease LDL, and increase HDL. This effect is soon compensated for and free fatty acids return to normal and in some cases above normal. The rebound effect varies from study to study but is generally considered mild. It is the release of free fatty acids that also causes the release of toxins in the body. Practitioners are hoping to achieve a greater degree of toxin release through this rebound effect that niacin can have about two hours after administration.
In addition to the rebound lipolysis and vasodilatation, niacin also inhibits oxidation in the vasculature which is an important factor with detoxification.
It is worth exercising caution with niacin in patients with diabetes, history of gout, on blood thinners, and who have MTHFR/methylation gene mutations. The rebound effect is associated with insulin resistance in many studies.
Patients who are already diabetic tend to have the greatest difficulty with this. High dose niacin can also cause elevations in uric acid, increased prothrombin time, and decreased platelet counts. It can also cause stress to the methylation pathway because this compound requires methylation to be eliminated. In fact, there are documented cases of hyperhomocysteinemia occurring in patients taking 1000 mg of niacin per day, which is the standard dose for a flush. I typically only recommend niacin as part of the detoxification protocol in patients who have demonstrated their ability to tolerate it or who have minimal risk for methylation pathway disruption.
Niacin is simply Vitamin B-3, which, when used along with the other vitamins, minerals, electrolytes, oil, and lecithin, aid in a process called lipolysis, which is a breaking up of the fat cells in the body. This reason this is significant is because much of the toxins in our bodies is stored in our fat cells. In fact, based on Dr. David Root’s research, the average person is likely to have more than 500 times higher levels of toxins stored in their bodies than what is revealed in their blood serum. Dr. David Root, M.D., M.P.H. is the Senior Medical Advisor to the International Academy of Detoxification Specialists. After taking niacin, the program requires running on a treadmill, or some other form of aerobic exercise, for 20-30 minutes in order to allow the increased circulation and capillary dilation to transport niacin deeper into the body’s cells.
Running on the treadmill allows for the increased circulation and capillary dilation to transport niacin deeper into the body’s cells
Upon completion of exercising, the next step is to spend up to 4 1/2 hours in the sauna, based on the program that I went through. However, with newer technology in the form of infrared saunas, it is no longer necessary to spend this lengthy amount of time in the sauna. World-renowned detoxification doctor, Dietrich Klinghardt, has found that the sweat from an infrared sauna contains 4.3 times more toxins than the sweat from a traditional heat sauna. As a result, people with an infrared sauna can complete this protocol in about an hour of sweating per day.
Sweating for up to 4 1/2 hours/day, 7 days/week in a traditional sauna at 140 to 180°F (Using an infrared sauna would shortens this time to 1 hour)
Of note is that the particular program I went through required doing this program on a daily basis, 7 days per week. “There are no breaks or pauses because,” as Mr. Pinelli explained to me, “once you start the process of mobilizing toxins in your system for elimination, it is important to do this program daily.” In other words, one would not want to mobilize and release toxins into the bloodstream, and then allow those same toxins to reabsorb back into the cells from not sweating them out. Amazingly, 20-60 percent of the toxins can be sweated out through the skin.
This, then, creates the ‘trademark’ red flush on the skin, which often occurs with a burning, prickly sensation that Mr. Hubbard describes as the runout from sunburn, which, in fact, is really a radiation burn.1 This program is best known for its ability to eliminate previous medicines, anesthetics, diet pills, food preservatives, pesticides, chemical cleaners, LSD, heroin, cocaine, marijuana, “angel dust”, medicinal and pharmaceutical drugs such as aspirin, codeine, as well as commercial and agricultural and industrial chemicals.2 According to Mr. Hubbard, radiation is water soluble and surfaces in a visible way. This certainly appeared to be the case for me, where past sunburns in the shape of my swimsuit appeared on my body. So, what exactly does this program entail?
•High dosages of immediate-release niacin: Niacin stimulates lipolysis, which breaks of the fat cells in the body, releasing free fatty acids, along with the toxins stored in the fat cells into the bloodstream. It is important to use immediate-release niacin because the time-release niacin has been found to cause liver toxicity.3, 4
•Moderate aerobic exercise: The exercise can be done on a treadmill, rebounder, bicycle, and elliptical for 20-30 minutes. This increases circulation, which ensures a quick and deeper absorption of the niacin throughout the body and into the cells. The exercise also carries mobilized chemical residues to the excretory routes.
•Sweating in a sauna: Saunas are very effective for certain cardiovascular problems and can also be used a means to enhance the mobilization of fat-soluble chemical toxins. While sweating in the sauna for a short time of up to 15 minutes can improve circulation and cardiovascular function, staying in the sauna for up to 4 1/2 hours each day facilitates the elimination of heavy metals like mercury.5, 6 Sauna temperatures range from 140° to 180° F, which is lower than the typical health-club sauna. It is important to ensure that adequate liquids are taken throughout, along with the proper amounts of electrolytes, to prevent dehydration or heat exhaustion.
•Cold-pressed oils: A combination of organic, cold-pressed olive, flax, and walnut oils prevent mobilized chemicals from being reabsorbed by the intestines. Polyunsaturated oils, in particularly, have been found to enhance excretion of extremely persistent chemicals, without depositing fat in the liver.
•Vitamin and mineral supplementation: It is important to ramp up the dosage of other vitamins and minerals in order to prevent deficiencies from taking the high dosages of niacin. Taking the oil also prevents reabsorption of mobilized chemicals. However, because this could also reduce absorption of important nutrients, an increased intake of vitamins and minerals prevents such toxic effects and also balances the intake of niacin.
When to begin
The optimal time to begin sauna therapy would be when rebound lipolysis occurs. This is because most heavy metals and organic xenobiotics are stored in the fat. Lipolysis will lead to the contents of fat cells — both fat and lipophilic xenobiotics — toend up in the blood and intestinal lumen.
According to a 2005 review by LA Carlson, the man responsible for much of the rebound lipolysis research over the past 50 years, rebound lipolysis occurs in a *dose-dependent* manner after the initial dose of niacin. Bret was correct in his assumption that the standard Hubbard protocol could be modified, but he did not account for this dose-dependence.
I’ll explain. In the attached image, Carlson presents a graph which shows free fatty acid (FFA) in the blood/serum. Each of the three human subjects was given 200 mg oral niacin at the t = 40 min point. At about t = 115 min, rebound lipolysis occurred. Subtract the two points, and you get about 1 h after taking 200 mg of niacin being the optimal time to begin sweating. If you were to begin to sauna 3-4 h after taking 200 mg of niacin, you’d have missed the boat, as the serum FFA concentration tails of the graphs begin to trend sharply downward.
But read Carlson’s follow-up to that graph. “…the length of depression of FFA levels by [niacin] is dose dependent, [1000 mg] of plain [niacin taken orally] having a duration of 3 h.”
***So at 1000 mg of niacin, rebound lipolysis occurs 3 h after dosing. At 200 mg of niacin, rebound lipolysis occurs 1 h after dosing. Assuming a linear dose dependence — and that is definitely just an assumption — at 600 mg of niacin, it would be optimal to begin to sauna 2 h after dosing.*** Use these times as your guide, and feel free to interpolate between the times if you are currently taking some dose of niacin other than 200, 600, or 1000 mg.
To the best of my knowledge, there is no data on serum FFA concentration which exists for any single dose beyond 1000 mg of niacin, so it cannot be assumed that one would need or not need to continue extending the length of the delay between niacin dosing and initiating sauna therapy.
The main takeaway is this: Bret is correct in that beginning sauna therapy 3 h after dosing with niacin will optimize your time because it will cause sweating to coincide with rebound lipolysis. The result is maximal excretion of lipophilic xenobiotics. What is not in Bret’s protocol, however, is an adjustment for doses of niacin below 1000 mg which which trigger rebound lipolysis as much as 2-3 hours earlier than what Bret suggests. If you begin to sauna 3-4 hours after taking a low-ish dose of niacin near the beginning of the 30-day protocol, you will have completely missed rebound lipolysis.
It’s also important to note that success has been achieved in the research literature even when the amount of attention paid to when sauna therapy is initiated is not nearly as nit-picky as this. If you take niacin, exercise, sweat soon after for 1-4 hours, and keep your nutrients up, you’ll likely have success. If you really want to optimize your results in parallel with the science, you must follow what the science has shown regarding the dose dependent effect of niacin on the timing of rebound lipolysis.
Heat allows toxins to become reintroduced into circulation and there is an increased potential for oxidative damage. For this reason, I recommend that patients take antioxidants before and after sauna therapy. Liposomal glutathione is an obvious choice because it is not only an antioxidant but an important substrate required for conjugation of many toxic compounds by the liver. I recommend a teaspoon before and a teaspoon after sauna treatment. This equates to approximately 400 mg twice a day. I also recommend taking plenty of vitamins E, A, C, D, and K.
The lipophilic, toxic compounds that find their way to the GI tract should ideally be flushed out through fecal elimination. To ensure the greatest possible chance for this to occur, patients should first and foremost be eliminating bowels every day. To prevent the reabsorbtion of these compounds, bile acid sequesterants and binders can be used and there is evidence to support their use.
cholestyramine Fibers, Clay and Activated Charcoal
Bile acid sequesterants are just that – agents that sequester the bile, essentially making it unavailable to bind with other lipids. The prescriptive agent that is most commonly used is called cholestyramine. This agent has a very short half life (6 minutes) and is capable of binding up to 80% of bile in that short time. This short half life also means that taking cholestyramine before sauna will not interfere with the absorption of nutrients at meal time. This is an excellent choice for patients who can tolerate this prescription.
Fiber is also capable of binding bile acid, but to a lesser extent. Both soluble and insoluble fibers like lignan, alfalfa, bran, and guar can bind between 10%-30% of bile acids. Cellulose does not effectively bind with bile, so it should not be considered as an option for this particular application. Binders are agents that prevent reabsorbtion by adhering to the toxin itself.
Examples of binding agents are bentonite clay and activated charcoal. GI elimination is the only way for the extremely lipophilic, toxic compounds to be eliminated. When doing sauna therapy, any toxic compound in tissue has the potential to be eliminated, so taking these measures to ensure proper elimination via stool is important.
Electrolyte monitoring is an equally important consideration when detoxifying patients. To an extent, the minerals K, Na, Ca, and Mg will be lost during dieresis. Binders used to prevent the absorption of toxins will also prevent the reabsorbtion of certain minerals that are in the gut, so a good multi-vitamin/mineral supplement such as Spectrum Mate should be taken throughout the detoxification process.
The classic study done by Roy Walford and John Laseter in the Biosphere 2 study1 in the 1990s and published in 2002 show the same toxic chemical mobilization from fat to blood in the two year period while eating a high nutrition calorie-restricted diet of 1500 to 1800 calorie diet.
The degree that a patient is likely to respond to sauna therapy depends on several things. The amount of toxin accumulated in tissue and the ability of the liver to safely mobilize toxins are two major factors. Toxic compounds that are not conjugated are either extremely hydrophilic or extremely lipophilic (to the extent that they cannot be measured in the urine). Some compounds are more toxic when they have been metabolized and others actually become more stable. The more time exposed to heat, the more toxins will be liberated, but the body can only do and handle so much of this at once. For this reason, I recommend that when patients are in crisis, they start sauna therapy very slowly and work their way up in time spent per session and how often they do sessions, as they become more tolerant.
Major Challenge: Toxic redistribution enterohepatic recirculation
In order to obviate health affliction and to potentially ameliorate chronic degenerative illness from persistent xenobiotics, the targeted therapy must be designed to circumvent enterohepatic recirculation.
The use of sauna for liberating toxins from the adipose tissue has been fairly well established as being effective for the treatment of toxicity for many years.
The studies that I have read were all published before infrared technology existed. So, it is safe to say that sauna of any sort is likely to benefit patients with toxicity. Infrared technology claims that it is able to cause a more vigorous sweat at lower temperature, which may create a more comfortable experience for the user (less time needed and at a less high temperature).
Infrared technology also claims that it can penetrate deep within the tissue for effective elimination. While visceral fat (the fat surrounding the organs) is certainly capable of housing toxins, it is the adipose tissue found in the subcutaneous layer that is viewed as the primary culprit for toxin accumulation. To reach the subcutaneous tissue, you simply need heat. Heat can be generated internally. Consequently, exercise is an excellent way to generate heat and burn the fat housing the toxin to begin with. Many patients are too sick to consider this as an option but patients who can tolerate exercise should be encouraged to do so. Better yet, do both exercise and sauna therapy.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 1990 Jul;9(4):235-44.
PCB reduction and clinical improvement by detoxification: an unexploited approach?
1. A detoxification trial was administered to a female worker from a capacitor factory who had been exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other lipophilic industrial chemicals. 2. The patient presented with severe abdominal complaints, chloracne, liver abnormalities, and a spontaneous nipple discharge of approximately 50 ml d-1. 3. PCB levels were high in adipose tissue (102 mg kg-1), serum, (512 micrograms l-1), skin lipids (66.3 mg kg-1), and in the nipple discharge (712 micrograms l-1). 4. The patient’s history, the medical evaluation and prior unsuccessful symptomatic treatments were indicative of consequences elicited by occupational exposure to chemicals. 5. Detoxification treatment reduced the PCB levels in adipose tissue to 37.4 mg kg-1 and in serum to 261 micrograms l-1, a 63% and 49% reduction, respectively. 6. The nipple discharge ceased and the symptoms improved. 7. Excretion of intact PCBs in sebum was appreciable before treatment and was enhanced by up to five-fold during detoxification. 8. This therapeutic approach appears promising for cases involving occupational exposure to lipophilic chemicals.
Methamphetamine exposure and chronic illness in police officers: significant improvement with sauna-based detoxification therapy.
The medical literature reports health hazards for law enforcement personnel from repeated exposure to methamphetamine and related chemical compounds. Most effects appear transitory, but some Utah police officers with employment-related methamphetamine exposures developed chronic symptoms, some leading to disability. This report is of an uncontrolled retrospective medical chart evaluation of symptomatic officers treated with a sauna detoxification protocol designed to reduce the chronic symptoms and improve the quality of life.
Sixty-nine officers consecutively entering the Utah Meth Cops Project were assessed before and after a treatment program involving gradual exercise, comprehensive nutritional support and physical sauna therapy. Evaluations included pre- and post-treatment scores of the Research and Development Corporation (RAND) 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) in comparison with RAND population norms, pre- and post-treatment symptom score intensities, neurotoxicity scores, Mini-Mental Status Examination, presenting symptom frequencies and a structured evaluation of treatment program safety.
Statistically significant health improvements were seen in the SF-36 evaluations, symptom scores and neurotoxicity scores. The detoxification protocol was well tolerated, with a 92.8% completion rate.
This investigation strongly suggests that utilizing sauna and nutritional therapy may alleviate chronic symptoms appearing after chemical exposures associated with methamphetamine-related law enforcement activities. This report also has relevance to addressing the apparent ill effects of other complex chemical exposures. In view of the positive clinical outcomes in this group, broader investigation of this sauna-based treatment regimen appears warranted
See 1 citation found by title matching your search:
Evaluation of a detoxification regimen for fat stored xenobiotics.
A detoxification regimen has been found to be safe for use by individuals exposed to recreational (abused) and medical drugs, patent medicines, occupational and environmental chemicals. Patients with high blood pressure had a mean reduction of 30.8 mm systolic, 23.3 mm diastolic. Cholesterol level mean reduction was 19.5 mg/100ml, while triglycerides did not change. Medical complications associated with the program were rare, occurring in less than three percent of the subjects. The program resulted in improvements in psychological test scores. The mean increase in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IQ was 6.7 points. High Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profiles decreased on the third scale (10.7), the fourth scale (8.0), the fifth scale (4.5) and the sixth scale (8.0). The decrease in the fourth scale suggests hope for sociopaths, a group with fourth scale scores not improved by National Institute for Mental Health or Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act inpatient programs.
Public Health. 2010 Jul;124(7):367-75. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2010.03.002. Epub 2010 Jun 19.
Human detoxification of perfluorinated compounds.
There has been no proven method thus far to accelerate the clearance of potentially toxic perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in humans. PFCs are a family of commonly used synthetic compounds with many applications, including repelling oil and stains on furniture, clothing, carpets and food packaging, as well as in the manufacturing of polytetrafluoroethylene – a non-stick surfacing often used in cookware (e.g. Teflon(r)). Some PFCs remain persistent within the environment due to their inherent chemical stability, and are very slowly eliminated from the human body due, in part, to enterohepatic recirculation. Exposure to PFCs is widespread and some subpopulations, living in proximity to or working in fluorochemical manufacturing plants, are highly contaminated.
PFC bioaccumulation has become an increasing public health concern as emerging evidence suggests reproductive toxicity, neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, and some PFCs are considered to be likely human carcinogens.
CSM better than SPC and Sauna
cholestyramine (CSM) and saponin compounds (SPCs).
A case history is presented where an individual with high concentrations of PFCs in serum provided: (1) sweat samples after use of a sauna; and (2) stool samples before and after oral administration of each of two bile acid sequestrants – cholestyramine (CSM) and saponin compounds (SPCs). Stool samples before and after use of a cation-exchange zeolite compound were also examined. PFCs found in serum were not detected in substantial quantities in sweat or in stool prior to treatment. Minimal amounts of perfluorooctanoic acid, but no other PFCs, were detected in stool after SPC use; minimal amounts of perfluorooctanesulfonate, but no other PFCs, were detected in stool after zeolite use.All PFC congeners found in serum were detected in stool after CSM use. Serum levels of all PFCs subsequently declined after regular use of CSM. Further study is required but this report suggests that CSM therapy may facilitate gastrointestinal elimination of some PFCs from the human body.
, in part, to enterohepatic recirculation and renal tubular reabsorption
ISRN Toxicol. 2013 Sep 9;2013:657849. doi: 10.1155/2013/657849. eCollection 2013.
Gastrointestinal Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds Using Cholestyramine and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.
While perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a family of commonly used synthetic compounds with many applications, some PFCs remain persistent within the human body due, in part, to enterohepatic recirculation and renal tubular reabsorption. With increasing recognition of potential harm to human health associated with PFC bioaccumulation, interventions to facilitate elimination of these toxicants are welcome in order to potentially preclude or overcome illness. Minimal research has been undertaken thus far on methods to accelerate human clearance of PFCs.
To test for possible oral treatments to hasten PFC elimination, a group of individuals with elevated PFC levels was treated with cholestyramine (CSM) and, after a break, was subsequently treated with Chlorella pyrenoidosa (CP). Stool samples were collected from all participants (i) prior to any treatment, (ii) during treatment with CSM, and (iii) during treatment with CP.
With CSM treatment, significant levels of three distinct PFCs were found in all stools, while levels were mostly undetectable prior to treatment. Following treatment with oral CP, undetectable or very low levels of all PFCs were noted in each sample tested.
CSM appears to facilitate elimination of some common PFCs and may have some role in the clinical management of patients with accrued PFCs.
SWEAT not enough
ISRN Toxicol. 2013 Sep 3;2013:483832. doi: 10.1155/2013/483832. eCollection 2013.
Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body.
Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration.
Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:
Our results add to the evidence that exposure to PFOA and PFHxS, even at lower levels than previously reported, may reduce fecundability.
Asare N, Duale N, Slagsvold HH, Lindeman B, Olsen AK, Gromadzka-Ostrowska J, Meczynska-Wielgosz S, Kruszewski M, Brunborg G, Instanes C.
Nanotoxicology. 2016;10(3):312-21. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2015.1071443. Epub 2015 Aug 17.
Select item 26132184
Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2014;7(2):119-35.
Effect of environmental contaminants on mammalian testis.
Exposure of humans and wildlife to pollutants released in the environment is a centre of attention nowadays. Many of these chemicals (generally referred to as environmental pollutants) have been shown to interfere with normal hormonal signalling and biological functions, leading to reproductive disorders or infertility, which has been a matter of concern within the recent decades. The present paper reviews adverse effects of these toxicants on mammalian testes, with emphasis on alteration of steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and histopathological effects. From the publications reviewed, it appears that environmental toxicants, especially heavy metals and organic chemicals of synthetic and microbiological origins, disrupt hormone production and action in the mammalian testes. Endocrine disruption leads to disorders of testicular function and thereby compromises the normal phenotypic development of male sexual characteristics, initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. The toxicants also induce impairment of testicular cells function, testicular histology, and sperm cells function directly. The release of the toxicants in the environment is still ongoing, despite alarming quantities that already exist in the atmosphere. If appropriate measures are not taken, their impact on the male reproductive function and especially on testicular function will be more serious.
Manfo FP, Nantia EA, Mathur PP.
Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2014;7(2):119-35. Review.
Select item 25363278
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Sep;21(18):11066-74. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-2986-5. Epub 2014 May 11.
Reproductive toxicity of lead, cadmium, and phthalate exposure in men.
Environmental toxicants viz lead or cadmium and phthalate esters (di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [DEHP], dibutyl phthalate [DBP], and diethyl phthalate [DEP]) widely found in different environmental strata are linked to deteriorating male reproductive health. The objective was to assess the relationships between the seminal lead, cadmium, and phthalate (DEHP, DBP, DEP) concentrations at environmental level and serum hormone levels and semen quality in non-occupationally exposed men and specify the effect of individual and combined exposure of toxicants on semen quality. A study of 60 male partners of couples attending the Andrology Laboratory of the Reproductive Biology Department, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India for semen analysis to assess their inability to achieve a pregnancy was selected for the study. The results of univariate and stepwise multiple regression analysis in the unadjusted model showed a significant correlation between lead or cadmium and phthalates DEHP/DBP/DEP and sperm motility, sperm concentration, and DNA damage. After adjusting for potential confounders, an association with lead or DEHP was only observed. The present data shows that lead (Pb) or cadmium (Cd) or phthalates might independently contribute to decline in semen quality and induce DNA damage. Phthalates might influence reproductive hormone testosterone. These findings are significant in light of the fact that men are exposed to a volley of chemicals; however, due to the small sample size, our finding needs to be confirmed in a larger population.
Pant N, Kumar G, Upadhyay AD, Patel DK, Gupta YK, Chaturvedi PK.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Sep;21(18):11066-74. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-2986-5. Epub 2014 May 11.
Environ Sci. 2004;11(1):33-45.
Endocrine-disrupting activity of chemicals in diesel exhaust and diesel exhaust particles.
Diesel exhaust (DE) is known as the main cause of air pollution. DE is a complex mixture of particulate and vapor-phase compounds. The soluble organic fraction of the particulate materials in DE contains thousands of compounds including a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. To clarify the endocrine-disrupting activities of DE, we have reviewed the reports about the effects of DE on the reproductive and brain-nervous systems, and the endocrine-disrupting action of diesel exhaust particles (DEP). In utero exposure to low levels (0.1 mg DEP/m3) of DE from day 2 postcoitum (p.c.) until day 13 p.c. reduced the expression level of Ad4BP/SF-1 mRNA and thereby might affect the development of gonads. Low levels of DE also reduced the expression of several genes known to play key roles in gonadal development, including an enzyme necessary for testosterone synthesis. Mature male rats exposed to DE during the fetal period showed an irreversible decrease in daily sperm production due to an insufficient number of Sertoli cells. DE exposure during the fetal period influenced the brain tissue in newborn mice. In the 3 mg DEP/m3 exposure group at 10 weeks of age, a significant reduction in performance was observed in the passive avoidance learning test in both male and female mice. In addition, the fetal exposure of mice to DE affected the emotional behaviors associated with the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the mouse brain. In toluidine blue-stained specimens from the DE-exposed group, edema around the vessels where fluorescent granular perithelial (FGP) cells exist and degenerated granules within the FGP cytoplasm were observed; similar findings were obtained by electron microscopic examination. DEP contain many substances that stimulate Ah receptors, such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon containing benzo[a]pyrene. DEP also contain substances with estrogenic, antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. The neutral substance fraction of DEP has the causal substance that reduces estrogen receptor mRNA expression. Evaluating the influence of these chemicals present in the environment on human health is an important task.
Takeda K, Tsukue N, Yoshida S.
Environ Sci. 2004;11(1):33-45. Review.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2012 Sep;16(9):1001-6. doi: 10.1089/gtmb.2012.0027. Epub 2012 Jun 25.
Clinical relevance of vitamin C among lead-exposed infertile men.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
A cross-sectional study was designed by targeting 120 male workers occupationally exposed to lead from a battery-manufacturing industry situated at the Patancheru industrial area, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, to see the impact of lead on testicular dysfunction with reference to infertility. Further, the study was designed to see the in vivo effect of an antioxidant in the form of vitamin C, prophylactically administered at the dose of 1000 mg/day for five consecutive days in a week for 3 months.
Blood samples and semen samples were collected from 120 men in the study group exposed to lead, and 120 healthy human subjects, who have no history of exposures to chemicals, were selected as controls for comparison. The mean age of the workers who participated in this study falls in the range of 25-55 years. The semen samples were collected with due consent of the industrial workers to perform the conventional semen analysis and the measure of sperm DNA fragmentation by the comet assay.
Industrial workers showed a statistically significant increase in sperm motility (p<0.001), sperm total count (p<0.001), and a statistically significant decrease in abnormal sperm morphology (p<0.001) after vitamin C prophylaxis. The comet assay also showed similar results, where there is a statistically significant decrease in alkaline-labile sites and a statistically significant decrease in the mean tail length of the comet when compared to the control group (p<0.001) after vitamin C prophylaxis.
This study leads us to conclude that the lead compound interferes with the testicular function, inducing its activity and also by exerting its effect on sperm DNA, leading to fragmentation. Further, the prophylaxis with antioxidant treatment may offer protection against the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced DNA damage, which is a major cause in the etiology of male infertility.
Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Feb;110 Suppl 1:25-42.
Understanding the human health effects of chemical mixtures.
Most research on the effects of chemicals on biologic systems is conducted on one chemical at a time. However, in the real world people are exposed to mixtures, not single chemicals. Although various substances may have totally independent actions, in many cases two substances may act at the same site in ways that can be either additive or nonadditive. Many even more complex interactions may occur if two chemicals act at different but related targets. In the extreme case there may be synergistic effects, in which case the effects of two substances together are greater than the sum of either effect alone. In reality, most persons are exposed to many chemicals, not just one or two, and therefore the effects of a chemical mixture are extremely complex and may differ for each mixture depending on the chemical composition. This complexity is a major reason why mixtures have not been well studied. In this review we attempt to illustrate some of the principles and approaches that can be used to study effects of mixtures. By the nature of the state of the science, this discussion is more a presentation of what we do not know than of what we do know about mixtures. We approach the study of mixtures at three levels, using specific examples. First, we discuss several human diseases in relation to a variety of environmental agents believed to influence the development and progression of the disease. We present results of selected cellular and animal studies in which simple mixtures have been investigated. Finally, we discuss some of the effects of mixtures at a molecular level.
PMID: 11834461 PMCID: PMC1241145
Carpenter DO, Arcaro K, Spink DC.
Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Feb;110 Suppl 1:25-42. Review.
PMID: 11834461 Free PMC Article
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2000 Sep;51(3):295-303.
Types of Saunas
As previously mentioned, infrared technology claims to have additional benefits over traditional sauna, but there doesn’t seem to be any research directly comparing the two types of saunas. If infrared rays allow for profuse sweating at lower temperatures than a traditional sauna, then an infrared sauna might provide a more comfortable option (similar results at a lower temperature) for those sensitive to the heat. If you’re looking for an infrared or other sauna, it is important to consider brands whose wood is not treated with toxic chemicals that will off-gas while in use or that emit large amounts of electromagnetic (EMF) radiation. Some of the better options for booth-style, wooden saunas are Clearlight and Heavenly Heat. There are also more portable infrared saunas available that have been shown to be effective and Relax Saunas is a good example.
If you find purchasing a sauna to be cost-prohibitive, the portable versions are less expensive. Another option is to find a spa or health club in your area that has a sauna you may use for a particular fee per session or as part of a membership package. Many integrative healthcare practitioners who are invested in helping their patients detoxify also have saunas in their offices for use.
You want to make sure to get an infrared sauna because they mobilize toxins 4.3 times faster than with heat alone. Most new saunas that are sold are Far Infrared. Most saunas at gyms are not infrared.imes a much more pleasant experience. You can get up, wipe off sweat, move around, socialize etc. It is a much cleaner environment because it is made from wood.
Portable infrared saunas
Chemicals, also known as “Volatile Organic Compounds”. (V.O.C.s)
I had an opportunity to complete a niacin detoxification program, also called the Purification Rundown, a program developed by Mr. L. Ron Hubbard back in the late 1970’s. Detoxification, for the purposes of this program, is defined as the process by which the body removes toxins through the skin and the gastrointestinal tract, as opposed to the more conventional medical definition of the detoxification process through the liver. While Mr. Hubbard’s philosophies led to the founding of the Church of Scientology, I have no affiliation with this church. Although the specific protocol of this program has been somewhat controversial, especially among the medical community, the results of those who have completed the program are compelling, so much so that scientists in the United States, Europe, and Russia have collaborated on this work since the early 1980’s.
In fact, their findings have been published by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer, among many others. This detoxification protocol has brought relief to thousands who have have suffered from health issues due to occupational and environmental exposures. These include veterans of the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars, workers involved in the post-Chernobyl emergency response, 9/11 First Responders, rescue workers, and those exposed to toxic material during raids on drug labs. Among the many Americans who sought out ways to help those harmed by the environmental exposures, Tom Cruise was a huge proponent of the New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project that started in September 2002, to help the victims of the 9/11 attacks.
In an attempt to address these issues, Dr. George W. Yu of Aegis Medical Research Associates, clinical professor of Urology at George Washington University Medical Center with more than 35 years experience as surgeon, referred me into this particular detoxification program because he suspected chemical toxicity as a potential cause of my symptoms. He explained to me this program would involve ramping up to high dosages of niacin, exercising aerobically, and then spending several hours in a sauna to sweat out chemical toxins. Dr. Yu’s explanation of this detoxification protocol can be seen in a Q&A session at David Wolfe’s Longevity Now Conference.
In summary, patients should be given metabolic supports and be eliminating bowels every day prior to initiating a sauna detoxification program. Heat therapy is effective at removing many toxic compounds from the body and sauna therapy is a passive form of heat therapy. Advise your patients to take antioxidants before and after the heat therapy (liposomal glutathione, if possible). Give binders and bile acid sequesterants prior to heat (sauna) therapy. Make sure that patients remove as much sweat as possible during and immediately after sauna sessions. Monitor your patients’ serum electrolytes. Finally, have patients start with sauna therapy slowly and progress toward longer and more frequent (even daily) sessions until complete elimination of the toxin is observed through testing.
Reference and Precision Notes
Evidence for sauna treatment:
Evidence in support of fiber and cholestyramine for binding bile acids.
Evidence in support of binders:
Bioaccumulation and elimination of toxins:
1. Hubbard, L. Ron, Clear Body, Clear Mind (Bridge Publications, Inc., 2002), 72.
3. Niacin, LiverTox Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury http://livertox.nih.gov/Niacin.htm
4. David, William, Using Niacin to Improve Cardiovascular Health, Life Extension Magazine, 2007, http://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2007/3/atd/Page-01
5. Crinnion W. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):S154-6. Review. Components of practical clinical detox programs–sauna as a therapeutic tool. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17405694
6. Sherson DL, Stopford W. Ugeskr Laeger. 1986 Jun 30;148(27):1682-3. Mercury levels of sweat. Its use in the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3750455