Placebo

A placebo  is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.[1] Common placebos include inert tablets (like sugar pills), inert injections (like saline), sham surgery,[2] and other procedures.[3] The word “placebo”, Latin for “I will please”, dates back to a Latin translation of the Bible by St Jerome.[12] The American Society of Pain Management Nursing define a placebo as “any sham medication or procedure designed to be void of any known therapeutic value”.[1]

In drug testing and medical research, a placebo can be made to resemble an active medication or therapy so that it functions as a control; this is to prevent the recipient(s) or others from knowing (with their consent) whether a treatment is active or inactive, as expectations about efficacy can influence results.[4][5]

In other words, a placebo is designed to fool patients in their belief system.

In a clinical trial any change in the placebo arm is known as the placebo response, and the difference between this and the result of no treatment is the placebo effect.[6]

A placebo may be given to a person in a clinical context in order to deceive the recipient into thinking that it is an active treatment. The use of placebos as treatment in clinical medicine is ethically problematic as it introduces deception and dishonesty into the doctor–patient relationship.[7] Placebos have no impact on disease itself; they can only affect the person’s perception of their own condition.[8]

However, as teaches psychosomatic and holistic medicines, a huge part of disease emergence is based on perception and emotions, if only because it is in a state of happiness where the body’s repair system gets activated. By Happiness, I mean being in a state of parasympathetic dominance, thanks to which the “rest-digest-repair” mechanisms can be activated.

Historically, an influential 1955 study entitled The Powerful Placebo established the idea that placebo effects were clinically important,[9] and were a result of the brain’s role in physical health, but a 1997 review of the study by conventional medicine experts found “no evidence […] of any placebo effect in any of the studies cited”.[10] Subsequent conventional research has found that placebos are not a useful means of therapy.[11]

However, these studies were carried out by conventional scientists who appear to be estranged from good Science and holistic reasoning. A lot of conventional studies are have flawed research methodologies.[18]
In effect, there is a ton, thousands of published peer reviewed studies that show that the placebo effect is real and continues to be one of the keys in most disease reversals. If the patient can believe that this or that “placebo technique” will work, then that very belief will put in place a destressing and immunotherapy-enhancing milieu. Furthermore, there is good evidence that placebo interventions can raise levels of endocannabinoids[14] and endogenous opioids,[15] other prominent components include expectancy effects. Dopaminergic pathways have been implicated in the placebo response in pain and depression. And children tend to have greater response than adults to placebos.

See additional evidence in the Institute’s workshops, online training or consider scheduling a coaching session.

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  1.  Arnstein P, Broglio K, Wuhrman E, Kean MB (2011). “Use of placebos in pain management” (pdf). Pain Manag Nurs (Position Statement of the American Society for Pain Management Nursing). 12 (4): 225–9. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2010.10.033. PMID 22117754.
  2. ^ Gottlieb S (18 February 2014). “The FDA Wants You for Sham Surgery”. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  3. ^ Lanotte M, Lopiano L, Torre E, Bergamasco B, Colloca L, Benedetti F (November 2005). “Expectation enhances autonomic responses to stimulation of the human subthalamic limbic region”. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 19 (6): 500–9. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2005.06.004. PMID 16055306.
  4. ^ “placebo”. Dictionary.com. 9 April 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  5. ^ “placebo”. TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  6. ^ Chaplin S (2006). “The placebo response: an important part of treatment”. Prescriber: 16–22. doi:10.1002/psb.344.
  7. ^ Newman DH (2008). Hippocrates’ Shadow. Scribner. pp. 134–59. ISBN 978-1-4165-5153-9.
  8. ^  “Placebo Effect”. American Cancer Society. 10 April 2015.
  9.  Hróbjartsson A, Gøtzsche PC (May 2001). “Is the placebo powerless? An analysis of clinical trials comparing placebo with no treatment”. The New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (21): 1594–602. doi:10.1056/NEJM200105243442106. PMID 11372012.
  10. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Kienle GS, Kiene H (December 1997). “The powerful placebo effect: fact or fiction?”. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 50 (12): 1311–8. doi:10.1016/s0895-4356(97)00203-5. PMID 9449934.
  11. ^ Jump up to: a b c Hróbjartsson A, Gøtzsche PC (January 2010). Hróbjartsson A, ed. “Placebo interventions for all clinical conditions” (PDF). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 106 (1): CD003974. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003974.pub3. PMID 20091554.
  12. ^ Jacobs B (April 2000). “Biblical origins of placebo”. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 93 (4): 213–4. doi:10.1177/014107680009300419. PMC 1297986. PMID 10844895.
  13. ^ Eccles R (2002). “The powerful placebo in cough studies?”. Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 15 (3): 303–8. doi:10.1006/pupt.2002.0364. PMID 12099783.
  14. ^ Colloca L (Aug 28, 2013). Placebo and Pain: From Bench to Bedside (1st ed.). Academic Press. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-12-397931-5.
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