Oenotherapy and Happiness Medicine at its Best

While most Mainstream, Integrative and even Holistic Medicine experts hesistate in including wine medicine in Medical School curriculum, let alone as a standard of care, we at the Happiness Medicine Institute believe that oenotherapy should be a required core subject for all medical students as well as prescription medicine for hospitals and private clinics in all fifty States of the Union. In this blog-article, I will prove, with an overwhelming preponderance of the evidence, that abstaining from a moderate amount of quality wine is a big chronic disease risk (Section A).  Thereafter, i will review a few of wine’s medicinal virtues that are all credibly supported via hard evidence. (Section B). In the last section, I will analyze the art of wine sipping or tasting (dégustation) and how this holistic art promotes  neurogenesis, neuroplasticity and a feeling of joie de vivre. (Section C)

Under construction

Section A

Abstain from Moderate, regular quality wine is one of the  causes to today’s Chronic Disease Epidimic

 

 

 

 

 

Section B.

Wine’s Medicinal Virtues

 

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Top: PIcture of Yashua and his companion buddies, during the last supper when, according to the Scrptures he recommended to drink red wine in remembrance of Christ’s ultimate sacrifice.

Section C

The Art of Wine Tasting, Neuro-Happiness and the Treasonous blunders of the Ruling Class

http://www.ledevoir.com/plaisirs/vin/63425/emile-peynaud-un-oenologue-dans-le-siecle

Discussion and Conclusion

Having been born in the Margaux vineyards, where my father worked, and later gotten oenology training with Professor Emile Pénaud, I’ve always had a fondness for high frequency wines. The key is to appreciate them as one’s spouse, softly sipping it and lighting ingesting its aroma and soul. The soul of its fermenting Life. Later in my health workshops, i used wine as aromatherapy, and then went into the gusto olfactory aspect. It is in all of these ways that wine is, as Pasteur said, the “most hygiene  beverage”… and  Bacchus.  “the elexir of the Gods”.

 

WineMargaux

 

 

 

 

Second, flavor is a multi-modal sensation. It is multi- sensory, involving all the sensory systems of the head and upper body [5]. This is nicely demonstrated in a quote [1] attributed to the famous chef Paul Bocuse:

The ideal wine … satisfies perfectly all five senses: vision by its color; smell by its bouquet; touch by its freshness; taste by its flavor; and hearing by its “glou-glou”.

 

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http://www.ledevoir.com/plaisirs/vin/63425/emile-peynaud-un-oenologue-dans-le-siecle

http://www.ledevoir.com/plaisirs/vin/63425/emile-peynaud-un-oenologue-dans-le-siecle

Molecules in wine stimulate thousands of taste and odor receptors, sending a flavor signal to the brain that triggers massive cognitive computation involving pattern recognition, memory, value judgment, emotion and, of course, pleasure.

Alex Reynolds/NPR

What do listening to music, hitting a baseball and solving a complex math problem have in common? They all activate less gray matter than drinking wine.

According to Yale neuroscientist Gordon Shepherd, the flavor of wine “engages more of our brain than any other human behavior.” The apparently simple act of sipping Merlot involves a complex interplay of air and liquid controlled by coordinated movements of the the tongue, jaw, diaphragm and throat. Inside the mouth, molecules in wine stimulate thousands of taste and odor receptors, sending a flavor signal to the brain that triggers massive cognitive computation involving pattern recognition, memory, value judgment, emotion and of course, pleasure.

Whereas most wine writers tend to focus on the various elements that go into the wine itself — the grape, the oak, terroir, the winemaker — Shepherd’s subject is the drinker. He explores biomechanics, physiology and neuroscience to describe a journey that begins as wine passes the lips and ends with a lingering “finish” that can last for minutes. like love making

If you’ve ever wondered how many muscles there are in the tongue (eight), if a high-fat diet can affect the perception of wine (it can), or if it’s possible to experience the full flavor of a wine that’s been spat out (it is not), Shepherd has answers — extraordinarily detailed, scientifically rigorous answers. I spoke to Shepherd about his new book, Neuroenology: How the Brain Creates the Taste of Wine. Our interview has been condensed and edited.

The subtitle of your book is “How the Brain Creates the Taste of Wine.” Can you explain what that means?

The analogy one can use is color. The objects we see don’t have color themselves — light hits them and bounces off. It’s when light strikes our eyes that it activates systems in the brain that create color from those different wavelengths. Similarly, the molecules in wine don’t have taste or flavor, but when they stimulate our brains, the brain creates flavor the same way it creates color.

Chapter one is on fluid dynamics, a subject you almost never hear mentioned by wine connoisseurs. How does fluid dynamics inform our understanding of wine?

You don’t just put wine in your mouth and leave it there. You move it about and then swallow it, which is a very complex motor act. If you search on YouTube for anyone doing serious wine tasting, they are working it with their mouths. It’s a very active process. So to understand the physiology of tasting wine, it’s necessary to give people a whole new context of how wine sensing and wine tasting takes place.

You talk about a “hidden force” in wine tasting. What is it?

When you sniff wine in the glass, you appreciate the bouquet. That’s called “orthonasal” smell — the external smelling we’re all familiar with. But what most people are unaware of is that when you take wine in your mouth and experience the flavor, most of that flavor is due to a kind of internal smelling. The air comes in from the throat, not your nostrils. That’s called “retronasal” smell. The molecules are carried to the same receptor cells in the nose, but from the opposite direction. This is very important when it comes to wine flavor. An example is the famous jelly bean test. If you put a jelly bean in your mouth and plug your nose and sense it with your tongue, all you sense is sweet from the sugar. But if you then unplug your nose, suddenly you’re flooded with the full flavor experience, and it’s because you’re smelling through the back of your nose.

One thing you write about that I’ve never read elsewhere is the effect saliva has on wine.

Our bodies produce saliva all the time, and saliva has stuff in it — stuff that both dilutes the wine and interacts with it. So as soon as the wine enters your mouth, it immediately begins to change. For example, saliva contains enzymes that break down the molecules in the wine to create compounds that effervesce into the air to stimulate the smell receptors in your nose. This produces new compounds that were not originally in the wine — they were created by this interaction.

The amount of saliva a person produces can affect their perception of wine. So can things like age, gender, or even the amount of acetone — a byproduct of energy metabolism — in a person’s breath.

And the time of day. And whether or not they’re depressed. If we’re talking about smell, we have about 350 different kinds of olfactory receptors. They are not the same between individuals — yours will be different than mine. And they’re not always the same over the course of months or years. As the cells turn over, they can change.

Given all these subjective variables, and the fact that the brain “creates” the taste of wine, is it possible for two people to experience the same wine in the same way?

There is still a commonality. We all know it’s a liquid, after all. We all know it comes from fruit. We all know it contains alcohol. And we all have saliva that is more or less the same. So probably 90 percent is the same and 10 percent is different. That’s part of the pleasure of wine —comparing your pleasure.

Does your research suggest wine drinkers are doing anything wrong?

Within a few sips or drinks, people are just downing the stuff. There needs to be more to it than that. If you take too large a sip, you’ve saturated your system.

Is expensive stemware worth it?

My wife and I have a sit-down meal every night. We used to use modest stemware, but we would occasionally knock it over and it would break, so now we use plain water glasses. But if we’re having a proper sort of dinner, we use some kind of glass with a bowl so you can capture the aroma. Just fill the bottom few cubic centimeters, because if you fill up a glass you don’t get much aroma. The reason for having a large bowl is that it amplifies the headspace for sniffing in the bouquet and you take small sips. But once you understand the flow dynamics that I describe, you can make your own choice as to how important the glass will be.

I will end with what may be the most enduring question in science. What’s the best value in wine for under $20?

For table wine, we stick to around $10 or $12 per bottle, and it’s a fun challenge to find a wine in that range. I don’t want to mention any names, because that would give someone a commercial advantage. For more interesting wines, we like Sancerre because it seems to have an edge to it. [Editor’s note: Sancerre is a designated wine district in the eastern Loire Valley known mostly for wines made from Sauvignon Blanc.] One of the reasons I prefer European wines is they have a slightly lower alcoholic content. There is research that shows people prefer wines with less alcohol. This is important, because global warming is driving alcohol content up, not down.

 

Neuroenology: how the brain creates the taste of wine

 

Flavour science is concerned with the sensory appreciation of food. However, flavor is not in the food; it is created by the brain, through multiple sensory, motor, and central behavioral systems. We call this new multidisciplinary field “neurogastronomy.” It is proving useful in integrating research findings in the brain with the biomechanics

of generating food volatiles and their transport through retronasal smell. Recent findings in laboratory animals and in humans give new insights into the adaptations that have occurred during evolution that give humans an enhanced flavor perception. This process will be illustrated by an analysis of how the brain creates the taste of wine. The successive stages of the biomechanics of movement of the ingested wine and transport of the released volatiles will be correlated with activation of the multiple brain mechanisms, apparently engaging more of the brain than any other human behavior. These stages include the initial cephalic phase, visual analysis, ingestion, formation of the wine perceptual image, formation of the wine perceptual object, swallowing, and post-ingestive effects. This combined biomechanic and brain mechanism approach suggests a new discipline of “neuroenology (neuro-oenology),” adding to the contributions that science can make to the enhanced quality and appreciation of wine.

Keywords: Wine, Retronasal smell, Wine image, Wine perceptual object, Fluid mechanics

Interest in food flavors is expanding rapidly, driven by a widening interest in food and concerns about the rising incidence of obesity and diseases related to unhealthy eating. While most interest is focused on the food, its composition, and the perceptions that it brings forth (see other contributions to this symposium), this has left large gaps of knowledge about the specific brain systems that create the perceptions. This approach to flavor through brain mechanisms has been termed neurogastr- onomy [1]. Here we outline some of the principles that are the basis for this new approach and then use wine tasting as an example.

Some principles of neurogastronomy

To begin, flavor is not in the food; it is created from the food by the brain [2]. There is a clear analogy with other sensory systems. In vision, for example, color is not in the wave lengths of light; color is created from the wave lengths by the neural processing circuits in the visual

pathway; these include center-surround interactions for color-opponent mechanisms [3]. Similarly, pain is not in the agents that give rise to it, such as a pin or a toxin; pain is created by the neural processing mechanisms and circuits in the pain pathway, together with central circuits for emotion [4].

Improved understanding of these mechanisms should give ultimate insight into the “qualia” of sensory percep- tion. Flavour is an attractive system for contributing to these insights.

Second, flavor is a multi-modal sensation. It is multi- sensory, involving all the sensory systems of the head and upper body [5]. This is nicely demonstrated in a quote [1] attributed to the famous chef Paul Bocuse:

The ideal wine … satisfies perfectly all five senses: vision by its color; smell by its bouquet; touch by its freshness; taste by its flavor; and hearing by its “glou-glou”.

At the same time, flavor is multimotor, involving all the relevant motor systems. These include the obvious muscle systems of the tongue, jaw, and cheeks, critical

for manipulating the food and drink in the mouth [6]. Recent research suggests that the movements of the tongue in manipulating food in the mouth are more com- plex than the movements used in creating the sounds of speech [7]. The motor systems also include those of the neck involved in swallowing, plus those in each sensory system (inner ear, eye muscles), plus the diaphragm and chest and pelvic muscles involved in breathing. They also include the glands for producing saliva for solubilizing and initiating digestion the food in the mouth. Flavor is therefore special in being always an active sense, with motor systems essential to activating the sensory pathways and central brain systems.

Third, much of flavor is due to retronasal smell, that is, smell that occurs when we are breathing out, to carry the volatiles from the mouth to the nasal cavity. This can truly be called our unknown sense. It was early rec- ognized [8] that smell is a dual sense, reflecting the fact that odor stimuli can be delivered by both orthonasal (sniffing in) and retronasal (breathing out) routes. Most of what we know about smell, both in humans and labora- tory animals, comes from studies of orthonasal smell. Re- search on retronasal smell is relatively recent [9-11].

There is evidence going back to Victor Negus [12] that most mammals have a relatively long palate and naso- pharynx for retronasal smell, in contrast to humans who have a relatively short palate that places the back of the mouth, where volatiles from the mouth are produced, relatively close to the nasal cavity for sensing by smell. Humans therefore appear to be adapted for retronasal smell and flavor.

Fourth, we are normally entirely unconscious of the retronasal contribution to flavor. The touch of the food in the mouth and the conscious sensations of the basic tastes emanating from the tongue “capture” our aware- ness of the food and refer all other sensations, including retronasal smell, to the mouth [2]. Flavor therefore has the quality of an illusion. This makes flavor vulnerable to many influences, as is well recognized by food pro- ducers in formulating and promoting their foods. Food producers spend millions on research to use the sensory illusions to influence our choices of food, in our homes as well as in the supermarket and the school cafeteria [13]. We therefore need a better understanding of retro- nasal smell in order to develop public policies based on better understanding of brain mechanisms that can lead to eating healthier food.

Fifth, as already indicated, we must keep in mind the underlying principle that “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” [14]. This is essen- tial in understanding how flavor perception and its asso- ciated sensory, motor, and central behavioral systems have been built into humans over the past million years and are the basis for current eating habits. Wrangham

has hypothesized that the control of fire by early humans enabled them to invent cooking, which increased the en- ergy in food, thus enabling the larger brains of Homo sa- piens [15]. Cooking would obviously have also enhanced the flavors of the food. From this perspective, retronasal smell and flavor may thus have played a central role in how we became human. The adaptations of the human head for playing this role have been discussed in detail by Lieberman [7].

A new vision for flavor science

It is obvious from the range of these principles that brain mechanisms in flavor perception have far reaching ramifications in modern society. It has been argued that this requires a much enlarged framework for understand- ing flavor. As discussed in a recent conference [16], this new all-embracing vision for a science of food and its fla- vors begins with the principle cited that biology makes sense only in the light of evolution. A corollary for the neuroscientist is “Nothing in the brain makes sense except in the light of behavior”. The multiple neural mechanisms involved in producing flavor include sensory, motor, cogni- tive, emotional, language, pre- and post-ingestive, hormo- nal, and metabolic. It can be claimed that more brain systems are engaged in producing flavor perceptions than in any other human behavior. These mechanisms are in play from conception through old age. Understanding them requires research on both humans and laboratory an- imals. In addition to insights into normal function, this re- search is needed for dealing with clinical disorders, ranging from obesity to Parkinson’s, and including dental medicine. Food producers carry out their own research on the brain mechanisms to draw consumers to products with attractive flavors but in too many cases with unhealthy conse- quences; the public needs to be as well informed about the brain mechanisms so that together more healthy foods can be produced and consumed. Food activists play roles in pressing for sustainable diets, anti-poverty policies, respon- sible agriculture; and preventing the consequences of cli- mate change. Finally, new initiatives in flavor research are urgently needed with funding for broad attacks that will benefit nutrition and public health.

Mechanisms for flavor images and flavor biomechanics

In order to understand the multisensory integration that underlies flavor perception, we need to begin with how the brain represents the sensory world. Most sensory sys- tems use neural space to represent their stimuli. This is most obvious in the somatosensory system, where the body surface is represented across a strip of cortex as a “homunculus”. It is also obvious in vision, where the ex- ternal visual field is represented by the visual field in the primary visual cortex. Less obvious is the auditory system.

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How is sound frequency, which has no spatial property, represented in the brain? Research has shown that fre- quency is represented by a frequency map laid out across primary auditory cortex. The map is a simple progression of frequency for the cat, but a much more elaborate pro- gression for the bat which has an enlarged area for the fre- quency it uses for locating prey [17].

Olfactory stimuli, in the form of different molecules, also have no spatial property. What are the neural mechanisms by which the information carried in an odor molecule is represented in the brain? In rodents, it was early estab- lished that stimulation with a given type of odor molecule elicits a pattern of activity in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb [18]. We called these “odor maps”; they are also called odor images or “smell images”. A critical finding was that although the patterns for different odors are extensive and overlapping, they are different for different molecules [19], even if they differ by only a single carbon atom and its two hydrogens [20]. Further behavioral exper- iments have shown that rodents can easily distinguish these fine differences [21], a sensitivity far greater than that for antibody-antigen recognition in the immune system.

Breakthrough experiments identified the odor receptor molecules [22] and showed that subsets of receptor cells expressing the same receptor gene project to differing sites in the glomerular layer, thus supporting the concept that space plays a role in encoding odor molecules. We are constructing computational models in three dimen- sions to gain further insight into how these images are formed within the olfactory bulb [23]. Further processing transforms the odor images in the olfactory bulb, repre- senting the information in the odor molecules, to “odor objects” in the olfactory cortex, which are in a form that can be integrated by the brain into odor perception [24].

These results have been revealed by experiments using orthonasal smell. This scheme is believed in general to apply to the neural processing mechanisms in retronasal smell. However, the dramatic difference is that when retro- nasal smell is activated by volatiles released from the back of the mouth during exhalation, all the associated systems involved in flavor perception are also activated. The ques- tion then arises: How is this array of systems coordinated? The mechanisms of activation are presently little under- stood, beyond what has already been mentioned about the complex movements of the tongue and the equally complex mechanisms of swallowing, coordinated with respiration.

Activation of the multimodal systems of flavor can be seen to be tightly linked to the movement of the food and drink through the mouth together with the movements of muscles and air during respiration. We can call these motor events the biomechanics of flavor. The biomechanics of the movement of air past the back of the mouth involves more specifically a subset of engineering problems that fall under the category of dynamic fluid mechanics. This

approach has revealed complex flow patterns of air through the nasal cavity during orthonasal [25-27] smell. The challenge now is to do the same for the flow patterns of air through the oro- and nasopharynx during retronasal smell.

Neuroenology (neuro-oenology): from biomechanics to the taste of wine

Building on the principles discussed above, let us use wine tasting as a specific example.

Hundreds of books have been written about wine tast- ing [28,29]. Most focus on the grapes, the vintages, and the techniques of tasting. Most include comments on the roles that the different senses play but few on recent studies of their pathways and mechanisms in the brain.

Here we wish to contribute to building a science of wine tasting by approaching the wine from the perspective of the brain. For this, we need to unite the biomechanics of movement of wine through the mouth and the movement of air through the oro- and nasopharynx into the nasal cavity, with the activation of, and control by, the multi- modal brain systems. Recently, at a symposium on wine, I drew together these aspects to use wine tasting as an ex- ample of neurogastronomy and will use it here to suggest some principles that may be called neuroenology (or neuro-oenology in British spelling).

We start with the key role proposed for retronasal smell. What is the proof that the retronasal pathway is open dur- ing tasting of the wine? Fluoroscopic observation has been made of the head and neck during ingestion of liquid; an example is available on YouTube (https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=umnnA50IDIY29). As can be seen, the naso- pharynx is clearly open with the fluid in the mouth and closes when swallowing. This can be easily confirmed by personal experience; with wine in the mouth, breathing in and out occurs while sensing of the taste of the wine occurs, which is shut off when swallowing.

We are currently carrying out a quantitative analysis of this process, involving the biomechanics of wine in the mouth and fluid dynamics of the volatiles in the air- way, which is still at an early stage. However, at this point, it is possible to suggest the main steps at the core of the wine tasting experience.

An animation was shown at the meeting to illustrate these events. Table 1 summarizes the most important steps. The first step (cephalic phase) occurs entirely in the head, consisting of the accumulated experience of the taster with wine in general and anticipation of this wine or wine tasting in particular. The expected flavor of the wine is thus due entirely to vision and to the imagin- ation. The wine is then poured and preliminary analysis carried out of it in the glass. Closer visual inspection strongly influences the expected flavor (“We eat first with our eyes” [30]). The aroma (bouquet) is the first encounter

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Table 1 Brain and biomechanics stages in wine tasting

mouth and is part of “taste”. Experienced tasters en- hance the taste by breathing in through the lips to aer- ate the wine in the mouth, although the effect does not reach the nose until breathing out through the nasopharynx. The taste is also enhanced by expert movements of the tongue to move the wine completely over all the taste buds of the tongue and pharynx. As mentioned, these movements are more complex than the tongue movements in forming speech. The move- ments also mix the wine with the saliva. Working against these mechanisms for enhancement is sensory adaptation, which occurs at all levels of the sensory pathways, from the receptors and their second mes- senger systems to the successive synaptic relays on the way to the cortex.

As processing in the sensory pathways continues, the images which were formed to represent the external sen- sory stimuli are transformed into central representations of the entire flavor object, i.e., in this case, the wine fla- vor object. That is, the images in the languages of the senses are transformed into objects in the language of the brain. In addition to the sensory pathways for discrimin- ation, central behavioral systems are engaged, also in the language of the brain. Memory systems mediate recogni- tion. Emotion systems mediate feelings. Dopamine systems mediate reward. Motivation systems calculate continuance of drinking. And most important for humans, language systems enable categorization that can be formulated by ourselves and communicated to others. Retronasal smell continues to flood the olfactory receptors with volatiles from the wine in the mouth. This maximum activation of flavor systems is depicted in Figure 1.

Brain systems

Cephalic phase (vision) Preliminary analysis (vision) Ingestion

Initial analysis

Forming the wine perceptual image Forming the wine flavor object Swallowing

Post-swallowing

Biomechanics

Orthonasal smell

Tongue, exhalation, retronasal smell Tongue, exhalation, retronasal smell Tongue, exhalation, retronasal smell Tongue, exhalation, retronasal smell Automatic motor action Exhalation, retronasal smell

with the olfactory sense, due to orthonasal smell acting to- gether with vision.

With ingestion, the wine is placed carefully in the mouth for maximum exposure to the senses. Initial ana- lysis occurs by each of the major internal senses: touch and mouth-feel, taste, retronasal smell, and hearing. Touch is critical in locating the wine in the mouth; as with food, it fools the brain into assuming that all the “taste” of the wine comes from the mouth. The motor systems for saliva and muscle movement of the tongue, cheek, and jaw are activated. Thus, like food, wine taste is also an active perception. Each sense initially forms its own sensory image.

Simultaneous activation of the multiple sensory sys- tems spreads from the primary to the surrounding as- sociation areas. Their common action begins to form what can be called the wine perceptual image. This combined image is conscious, except that it contains the illusion that its olfactory part is coming from the

Figure 1 Analyzing the wine flavor object. Summary of activation of flavor systems related to wine tasting. Sensory pathways include touch, taste, olfaction, visual cortex (audition not shown). Motor pathways include mouth: tongue, cheek, jaw, glands producing saliva; pharynx; lungs for inhalation and exhalation. Ellipses represent activation of central brain systems for memory, emotion, motivation, reward, and language. Adapted from [31].

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For many people, this represents the peak of the wine tasting experience. However, there is one more step. The prefrontal cortex decides when all the systems have reached their culmination, and the conscious decision is made to terminate by swallowing. The soft palate closes to prevent aspirating wine into the nasopharynx, the epiglottis closes to prevent it entering the trachea, and the complex systems of muscles of the tongue, pharynx, neck, and lung carry out swallowing automatically. It is one of the most complex behaviors in mammalian life.

But the sensory stimulation of the wine tasting is not yet over. In the post-swallowing phase, the wine coating the pharynx still is carried to the smell receptors in the nose by retronasal smell, providing the “longueur on bouche” (“length in the mouth”). Together with the lin- gering activity in the systems for memory, emotion, and motivation, it contributes to the final conscious evalu- ation of the wine. In addition, the post-ingestive period is characterized by metabolic effects of the wine in the gut [32]. In the case of studies of this period during food con- sumption, there is increasing interest in these actions on isolated taste buds and on the metabolic effects of carbo- hydrates that contribute to obesity. In the case of wine, the alcohol content has actions on central systems for craving leading to inebriation [33], reminding us that, as with so many things in life that give us pleasure, in excess, wine is also a potential drug of abuse.

In summary, the stages in wine tasting have traditionally been characterized by the tasters. Increasing knowledge of brain mechanisms and the associated biomechanics of the wine in the mouth and the volatiles in the airway gives a new enlarged framework for a deeper understanding of this most complex experience of flavor among all of human foods.

Competing interests

The author declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

For valuable experience in wine tasting, I am indebted to Jean-Claude Berrouet, Petrus; Sandrine Garbay, Château d’Yquem; Marilisa Allegrini, Amarone Valpolicella; Ann Noble, University of California Davis; Jean-Didier Vincent, Universities of Bordeaux and Paris; Pierre-Marie Lledo, Institut Pasteur; Terry Acree, Cornell University; and Albert Scicluna, Les Domaines qui montent. Our research is supported by the National Institute for Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders within the National Institutes of Health.

Received: 19 December 2014 Accepted: 30 December 2014

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neuroenology.aspx

32. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Baler RD. Reward, dopamine and the control of food

intake: implications for obesity. Trends Cogn Sci. 2011;15(1):37–46.

33. Shepherd GM. Smell images and the flavour system in the human brain.

Nature. 2006;444(7117):316–21.

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0e54/6b70d0f33054efa268bbae0866ce00a26fa6.pdf

Dr Maury was a general practitioner, acupuncture specialist and homeopathist who, the blurb tells us, graduated from the Faculté de Medicine de Paris. This text, written in 1974 and first translated from French to English two years later, takes us on a journey of Dr Maury’s personal practice concerning the use of wine as medicine, as the title suggests. The first few chapters give us a run-down of the different wine regions of France, together with the mineral and other components of wine that Dr Maury feels (he does not deign to cite the medical literature at any point) have a specific effect. The main body of the book, however, is given over to an alphabetical account of various maladies, with appropriate suggestions for their treatment using wine. Perhaps if I quote from the book this will become clearer. “Aerophagia: Aerophagia is exaggerated swallowing of air, which in most cases results in a painful bloating of the stomach during or shortly after a meal. It most often occurs in nervous, worried people who are dissatisfied with their lives and who worry about a problem of affective or professional origin. Recommended wine: Dry or brut Champagne. Dosage: Two glasses per meal.” If only all doctors gave this sort of advice. Champagne makes a regular appearance as a treatment, including for fever (where the dose is one bottle per day, taking a glass per hour!) as well as coronary diseases, although Dr Maury is at pains to point out that wine should not be administered during the acute stage of a heart attack. Other notable treatment regimes include red Burgundy (helpful for those with heart failure), Entre-Deux-Mers (useful for treating rickets, but only in those aged five years or more) and Vouvray (good for constipation, apparently). As I’m sure the reader can tell, I find this book amusing, and naturally all advice within should (in my personal opinion) be taken with a large pinch of salt. Nevertheless, I love browsing through it – it never fails to bring a smile to my face.

Resveratrol doubles the growth and development of neurons, in a lab animal model.

The hippocampus – the region of the brain responsible for memory, experiences structural changes that are thought to contribute to aging-related memory and mood impairments. Ashok K. Shetty, from the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine (Texas, USA), and colleagues employed a lab animal model to study the potential effects of resveratrol – an antioxidant that is found in the skin of red grapes, as well as in red wine, peanuts and some berries. Among rats given resveratrol, neurogenesis (the growth and development of neurons) approximately doubled (as compared to control rats); as well, the resveratrol-treated rats also had significantly improved microvasculature, indicating improved blood flow, and had a lower level of chronic inflammation in the hippocampus. Consequently, the team observed that spatial learning and memory improved in the resveratrol-treated rats, with the ability to make new spatial memories significantly declining among control rats at 22 to 25 months.  Observing that: “These results provide novel evidence that resveratrol treatment in late middle age is efficacious for improving memory and mood function in old age,” the study authors submit that: “Modulation of the hippocampus plasticity and suppression of chronic low-level inflammation appear to underlie the functional benefits mediated by resveratrol.”

Kodali M, Parihar VK, Hattiangady B, Mishra V, Shuai B, Shetty AK. “Resveratrol prevents age-related memory and mood dysfunction with increased hippocampal neurogenesis and microvasculature, and reduced glial activation.”  Sci Rep. 2015 Jan 28;5:8075.

 

 

WineTannatBlanc WineTannat2 Winetannat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit A

 

 

Soignez-vous par le vin

Bon dimanche La lorgnette

Video 30 Janv. 1977 9730 Vues 05Min 02S

/.block-infos

Le docteur MAURY à découvert que tous les vins avaient des propriétés thérapeutiques spécifiques. Face à Stéphane COLLARO qui l’interviewe, il présente son ouvrage “Soignez vous par le vin” et conseille divers vins en fonction des pathologies des malades.

 

 

 

 

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