Macro-nutrients

  • This list is a categorization of the most common food components based on their macronutrients. Macronutrients can refer to the chemical elements that humans consume in the largest quantities

    There are three primary macronutrients: carbohydrate, protein, and lipids.[1] Nucleic acids can be deemed to be a fourth essetial macronutrient.

    Macronutrients are defined as a class of chemical compounds which humans consume in the largest quantities (must be above a threshold amount) and which provide humans with the bulk of energy and building material. Wine is a calorical and nutritional dense compound that can provide large amounts of bioavailable energy as well as many phyto-nutrients.

     The Carbs

    Glucose

    Sucrose

    Ribose

    Amylose a major component of starch

    Amylopectin

    Maltose

    Galactose

    Fructose

    Lactose

    Proteins

    Standard amino acids

    Alanine

    Arginine

    Aspartic acid (aspartate)

    Asparagine

    Cysteine

    Glutamic acid (glutamate)

    Glutamine

    Glycine

    Histidine

    Isoleucine (branched chain amino acid)

    Leucine (branched chain amino acid)

    Lysine

    Methionine

    Phenylalanine

    Proline

    Serine

    Threonine

    Tryptophan

    Tyrosine

    Valine (branched chain amino acid)

    Fats

    Saturated

    Butyric acid (C4)

    Caproic acid (C6)

    Caprylic acid (C8)

    Capric acid (C10)

    Lauric acid (C12)

    Myristic acid (C14)

    Pentadecanoic acid (C15)

    Palmitic acid (C16)

    Margaric acid (C17)

    Stearic acid (C18)

    Arachidic acid (C20)

    Behenic acid (C22)

    Lignoceric acid (C24)

    Cerotic acid (C26)

    Monounsaturated

    Myristol

    Pentadecenoic

    Palmitoyl

    Heptadecenoic

    Oleic acid

    Eicosen

    Erucic acid

    Nervonic acid

     Polyunsaturated

    Linoleic acid (LA) – an essential fatty acid

    α-Linolenic acid (ALA) – an essential fatty acid

    Stearidonic acid (SDA)

    Arachidonic acid (ETA)

    Timnodonic acid (EPA)

    Clupanodonic acid (DPA)

    Cervonic acid (DHA)

    Essential Fatty Acids

    These 2 essential fatty acids are the starting point for other important omega-acids (e.g. DHA, EPA)

    α-Linolenic acid ALA (18:3) Omega-3 fatty acid

    Linoleic acid LA (18:2) Omega-6 fatty acid

    Water

Water is the most important substance for life on Earth. It provides the medium in which all metabolic processes proceed. As such it is necessary for the absorption of macronutrients, but it provides no nutritional value in and of itself. Water often contains naturally occurring micronutrients such as calcium and salts.

Fiber

Dietary fibre or roughage, found mostly in vegetables (and fruit), is crucial to the health and normal function of the human digestive system.

Anti-oxydants

Compounds found in large amounts in fruit and vegetables as well as in many teas(herbs) and spices. Essential for reducing damage to cells, and highly beneficial to overall health. Common antioxidants needed in relatively large amounts include vitamins C, A and E.

In sports, fitness and bodybuilding the term macros is used extensively to refer to macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates and lipids). Additionally, the term carb or carbs refers to carbohydrates.

Almost all diet plans are based on judicious distribution of these  elements in required ratios. For example, a 2000 calorie diet could consist of 800 calories from 200 grams of protein (1 g of protein = 4 kcal), 800 calories from 200 grams of carbs (1 g carbohydrates = 4 kcal) and 400 calories from 44 grams of fats (1 g fat = 9 kcal). This is also called counting or tracking macros.

 Text under construction

^ Prentice, Andrew M. (1 October 2005). “Macronutrients as sources of food energy”. 8 (7a): 932–939. doi:10.1079/PHN2005779 – via Cambridge Core.

 

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