History of Medicine & the Making of Diseases

In the US, the “great” shism between natural Hippocrates-base holistic medicine and allopathic-chemical corporate medicine fully manifested itself during President Lincoln’s time, when Kellogg’s Sun and healthy food healing Center was reversing serious diseases like tuberculosis. But the forces of greed and the “a quick fix” spirit prevailed and progressively hijacked the Law to sidestep integrative medicine and outlaw holistic medicine, the only mode of homeostatic restoration that is both inexpensive (and often free) and consistent with the Progress of History, Evolution and the People’s basic needs and general interests.

The public today does not adequately understand the degree of animosity that conventional doctors had toward homeopathic physicians. The reasoning for this animosity is probably best described in the words of one doctor to an AMA meeting:

“Too many wives of conventional physicians are going to homeopathic physicians. And to make it worse,” he added, “they are taking their children to homeopaths too.”[5]


[5] Coulter, H. L. Divided Legacy: A History of the Schism in Medical Thought. Volume I: The Patterns Emerge-Hippocrates to Paracelsus. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1973.

A detailed article in the famed Archives in Internal Medicine has verified that the small doses used in homeopathic medicines are no smaller than many hormones and cell-signaling agents, which are widely recognized to have profound biological effects on daily human functioning.[7] 

[1] Bell, I; Koithan, M. “A model for homeopathic remedy effects: low dose nanoparticles, allostatic cross-adaptation, and time-dependent sensitization in a complex adaptive System.” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:191 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-191.

[2] Bornhoft, Gudrun, and Matthiessen, Peter F. Homeopathy in Healthcare: Effectiveness, Appropriateness, Safety, Costs. Goslar, Germany: Springer, 2011.

[3] Bradford, T. L. The Logic of Figures or Comparative Results of Homoeopathic and Other Treatments. Philadelphia: Boericke and Tafel, 1900.

[4] Chikramane PS, Kalita D, Suresh AK, Kane SG, Bellare JR. “Why Extreme Dilutions Reach Non-zero Asymptotes: A Nanoparticulate Hypothesis Based on Froth Flotation.” Langmuir. 2012 Nov 13;28(45):15864-75. doi: 10.1021/la303477s. Epub 2012 Nov 1.

[5] Coulter, H. L. Divided Legacy: A History of the Schism in Medical Thought. Volume I: The Patterns Emerge-Hippocrates to Paracelsus. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1973.

[6] Dearborn, F. M. American Homoeopathy in the World War. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Homeopathy, 1923.

[7] Eskinazi, D., “Homeopathy Re-revisited: Is Homeopathy Compatible with Biomedical Observations?” Archives in Internal Medicine, 159, Sept 27, 1999:1981-7.

Further, a wide and multi-disciplinary body of modern scientific evidence has confirmed the biological power of homeopathic nano-doses.[1],[4]


Federal History 2011


The Politics of Alternative Medicine at the National Institutes of Health

By Eric W. Boyle

On February 26, 2009, Democratic Senator Thomas R. Harkin (Iowa) addressed the con- troversial 10-year history of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Med- icine (NCCAM) at a Senate meeting titled “Integrative Care: A Pathway to a Healthier Nation.” Harkin began by noting that as it had be-

come fashionable recently to quote Abraham Lincoln,

he would quote from Lincoln’s 1862 address to Con-

gress—words that he argued should inspire health

care reform legislation. One month before signing the

Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln wrote, “The

dogmas of the quiet past are inadequate to the stormy

present. The occasion is piled high with difficulty . . .

As our case is new, so we must think anew, and act

anew. We must disenthrall ourselves, and then we

shall save our country.”1 After quoting Lincoln,

Harkin continued: “Clearly, the time has come to








“It often happens that the universal belief of one age of mankind – a belief from which no one was, nor without an extraordinary effort of genius and courage, could at that time be free – becomes to a subsequent age so palpable an absurdity, that the only difficulty then is to imagine how such a thing can ever have appeared credible.” J.S. Mill, The Principles of Political Economy (1848)




Impact on alternative medicine[edit]

When Flexner researched his report, “modern” medicine faced vigorous competition from several quarters, including osteopathic medicine, chiropractic medicine, electrotherapy, eclectic medicine, naturopathy and homeopathy.[16] Flexner clearly doubted the scientific validity of all forms of medicine other than that based on scientific research, deeming any approach to medicine that did not advocate the use of treatments such as vaccines to prevent and cure illness as tantamount to quackery and charlatanism. Medical schools that offered training in various disciplines including electromagnetic field therapy, phototherapy, eclectic medicine, physiomedicalism, naturopathy, and homeopathy, were told either to drop these courses from their curriculum or lose their accreditation and underwriting support. A few schools resisted for a time, but eventually all either complied with the Report or shut their doors.[17]

Impact on osteopathic medicine[edit]

Although almost all the alternative medical schools listed in Flexner’s report were closed, the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) was able to bring a number of osteopathic medical schools into compliance with Flexner’s recommendations and produce an evidence-based practice.[citation needed] The curricula of DO and MD awarding medical schools are now nearly identical, the chief difference being the additional instruction in osteopathic schools of osteopathic manipulative medicine.

Sullivan, Louis W.; Suez Mittman, Ilana (February 2010). “The State of Diversity in the Health Professions a Century After Flexner”. Academic Medicine. 85 (2): 246–253. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181c88145.

15^ Jump up to:
a b Black Physicians and Black Hospitals (PDF). p. 24.

16 Jump up
Stahnisch, Frank W.; Verhoef, Marja. “The Flexner Report of 1910 and Its Impact on Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Psychiatry in North America in the 20th Century”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012: 1–10. doi:10.1155/2012/647896.

17 Jump up
James L. Oschman PhD, in Energy Medicine (Second Edition), 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/flexner-report

Further reading[edit]


‘think anew’ and to ‘disenthrall ourselves’ from the dogmas and biases that have made our current health care system—which is based overwhelmingly on conventional medicine—so wasteful and dysfunctional.”2 He argued that it was time to end the discrimination against alternative health care practices; time for America’s health care system to emphasize coor- dination and continuity of care, patient-centeredness, and prevention. For Harkin, adopting an integrative approach meant taking advantage of the very best scientifically based medi- cines and therapies, whether conventional or alternative.

Yet, when turning his discussion to NCCAM’s past, Harkin expressed his disappointment with the work that the Center had conducted over the previous 10 years. He noted, “One of the pur- poses of this center was to investigate and validate alternative approaches. And quite frankly, I must say publicly that it has fallen short.” Harkin lamented that instead, “in this center and pre- viously the office before it, most of its focus has been on disproving things rather than seeking out and approving.”3

Eric W. Boyle is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Office of NIH History, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. This article is based on a presentation at the conference of the Society for History in the Federal Government at College Park, Mary- land, on March 5, 2010.

1 Full Committee Hearing, Integrative Care: A Pathway to a Healthier Nation, SD 4-30 (Feb. 26, 2009): http://help. senate.gov/hearings/hearing/?id=03629575-0924-cb2e-13cb-68a8065ababb.

2 Ibid. 3 Ibid.

Federal History online 16

Federal History 2011 Boyle

Harkin’s words almost immediately became fodder for the critics of NCCAM in the blogosphere. One blogger explained:

Harkin is mad because the folks at NCCAM just don’t understand what being the beneficiary of an earmark is all about. If s





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