A vaccine against Epstein–Barr virus is not yet available. The virus establishes persistent/latent infection and causes infectious mononucleosis. It is a dual-tropic virus, causing infection of both B cells and epithelial cells. One challenge is that the Epstein–Barr virus expresses very different proteins during its lytic and its latent phases.
Several clinical trials for a vaccine were conducted in 2006-2008. The viral proteins Gp350/220 are a primary target, but this would only block infection of B cells, not epithelial cells. MVA-EL[further explanation needed] has been also proposed as a target for EBV-positive cancers, but this would only be effective in combating EBV-related cancers, not the EBV infection itself. VLP (virus-like particles)-based EBV vaccines are also the subject of intensive research.
In April 2018, the first human antibody that blocks Epstein-Barr Virus was discovered, called AMMO1. It blocks glycoproteins gH and gL. This discovery defines new sites of vulnerability on Epstein-Barr Virus, and neutralizes the dual-tropic infection (stopping both infection of B cells and epithelial cells). It is the most promising discovery to date, as it is the first that may be able to block both B cell infection and epithelial infection.
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