Beta Glucan Immunotherapy

β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, bacteria, and fungi, with significantly differing physicochemical properties dependent on source. Typically, β-glucans form a linear backbone with 1–3 β-glycosidic bonds but vary with respect to molecular mass, solubility, viscosity, branching structure, and gelation properties, causing diverse physiological effects in animals.

At dietary intake levels of at least 3 g per day, oat fiber β-glucan decreases blood levels of LDL cholesterol and so may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.[1] β-glucans are used as texturing agents in various nutraceutical and cosmetic products, and as soluble fiber supplements, but can be problematic in the process of brewing.

Cereal and fungal products have been used for centuries for medicinal and cosmetic purposes; however, the specific role of β-glucan was not explored until the 20th century. β-glucans were first discovered in lichens, and shortly thereafter in barley. A particular interest in oat β-glucan arose after a cholesterol lowering effect from oat bran reported in 1981.[2]

In 1997, the FDA approved of a claim that intake of at least 3.0 g of β-glucan from oats per day decreased absorption of dietary cholesterol and reduced the risk of coronary heart disease. The approved health claim was later amended to include these sources of β-glucan: rolled oats (oatmeal), oat bran, whole oat flour, oatrim, whole grain barley and barley beta-fiber. An example of an allowed label claim: Soluble fiber from foods such as oatmeal, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. A serving of oatmeal supplies 0.75 grams of the 3.0 g of β-glucan soluble fiber necessary per day to have this effect. The claim language is in the Federal Register 21 CFR 101.81 Health Claims: Soluble fiber from certain foods and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).[3]

Glucans are arranged in six-sided D-glucose rings connected linearly at varying carbon positions depending on the source, although most commonly β-glucans include a 1-3 glycosidic link in their backbone. Although technically β-glucans are chains of D-glucose polysaccharides linked by β-type glycosidic bonds, by convention not all β-D-glucose polysaccharides are categorized as β-glucans.[4] Cellulose is not typically considered a β-glucan, as it is insoluble and does not exhibit the same physicochemical properties as other cereal or yeast β-glucans.[5]

Glucose molecule, showing carbon numbering notation and β orientation.

Some β-glucan molecules have branching glucose side-chains attached to other positions on the main D-glucose chain, which branch off the β-glucan backbone. In addition, these side-chains can be attached to other types of molecules, like proteins, as in polysaccharide-K.

The most common forms of β-glucans are those comprising D-glucose units with β-1,3 links. Yeast and fungal β-glucans contain 1-6 side branches, while cereal β-glucans contain both β-1,3 and β-1,4 backbone bonds. The frequency, location, and length of the side-chains may play a role in immunomodulation. Differences in molecular weight, shape, and structure of β-glucans dictate the differences in biological activity.[6][7]

β-Glucan Structure by Source
Source Backbone Branching Solubility in Water
Bacteria
Curdlan haworth.png
None Insoluble[8]
Fungus
Curdlan haworth.png
Short β-1,6 branching Insoluble[9]
Yeast
Curdlan haworth.png
Long β-1,6 branching Insoluble[7]
Cereal
Beta-1,3-1,4-glucan.png
None Soluble[6]

β-glucans form a natural component of the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, yeast, and cereals such as oat and barley. Each type of beta-glucan comprises a different molecular backbone, level of branching, and molecular weight which affects its solubility and physiological impact. One of the most common sources of β(1,3)D-glucan for supplement use is derived from the cell wall of baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). β-glucans found in the cell walls of yeast contain a 1,3 carbon backbone with elongated 1,6 carbon branches.[10] Other sources include seaweed,[11] and various mushrooms, such as lingzhi, shiitake, chaga, and maitake, which are under preliminary research for their potential immune effects.[12]

In the diet, β-glucans are a source of soluble, fermentable fiber – also called prebiotic fiber – which provides a substrate for microbiota within the large intestine, increasing fecal bulk and producing short-chain fatty acids as byproducts with wide-ranging physiological activities.[13] This fermentation impacts the expression of many genes within the large intestine,[14] which further affects digestive function and cholesterol and glucose metabolism, as well as the immune system and other systemic functions.[13][15]

Oatmeal is a common food source of β-glucans

Cereal β-glucans from oat, barley, wheat, and rye have been studied for their effects on cholesterol levels in people with normal cholesterol levels and in those with hypercholesterolemia.[1] Intake of oat β-glucan at daily amounts of at least 3 grams lowers total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 5 to 10% in people with normal or elevated blood cholesterol levels.[16]

Oats and barley differ in the ratio of trimer and tetramer 1-4 linkages. Barley has more 1-4 linkages with a degree of polymerization higher than 4. However, the majority of barley blocks remain trimers and tetramers. In oats, β-glucan is found mainly in the endosperm of the oat kernel, especially in the outer layers of that endosperm.[6]

Enterocytes facilitate the transportation of β(1,3)-glucans and similar compounds across the intestinal cell wall into the lymph, where they begin to interact with macrophages to activate immune function.[17] Radiolabeled studies have verified that both small and large fragments of β-glucans are found in the serum, which indicates that they are absorbed from the intestinal tract.[18] M cells within the Peyer’s patches physically transport the insoluble whole glucan particles into the gut-associated lymphoid tissue.[19]

An assay to detect the presence of (1,3)-β-D-glucan in blood is marketed as a means of identifying invasive or disseminated fungal infections.[20][21][22] This test should be interpreted within the broader clinical context, however, as a positive test does not render a diagnosis, and a negative test does not rule out infection. False positives may occur because of fungal contaminants in the antibiotics amoxicillin-clavulanate,[23] and piperacillin/tazobactam. False positives can also occur with contamination of clinical specimens with the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Alcaligenes faecalis, which also produce (1→3)β-D-glucan.[24] This test can aid in the detection of Aspergillus, Candida, and Pneumocystis jirovecii.[25][26][27] This test cannot be used to detect Mucor or Rhizopus, the fungi responsible for mucormycosis, as they do not produce (1,3)-beta-D-glucan.[28]

  1. ^ Jump up to: a b Ho, H. V; Sievenpiper, J. L; Zurbau, A; Blanco Mejia, S; Jovanovski, E; Au-Yeung, F; Jenkins, A. L; Vuksan, V (2016). “The effect of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for CVD risk reduction: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials”. British Journal of Nutrition. 116 (8): 1369–1382. doi:10.1017/S000711451600341X. PMID 27724985.
  2. ^ Kirby RW, Anderson JW, Sieling B, Rees ED, Chen WJ, Miller RE, Kay RM (1981). “Oat-bran intake selectively lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34 (5): 824–9. PMID 6263072.
  3. ^ https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=1&SID=4bf49f997b04dcacdfbd637db9aa5839&ty=HTML&h=L&mc=true&n=pt21.2.101&r=PART#se21.2.101_181 21 CFR 101.81 Health Claims: Soluble fiber from certain foods and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)
  4. ^ Zeković, Djordje B. (10 October 2008). “Natural and Modified (1→3)-β-D-Glucans in Health Promotion and Disease Alleviation”. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 25(4): 205–230. doi:10.1080/07388550500376166.
  5. ^ Sikora, Per (14 June 2012). “Identification of high b-glucan oat lines and localization and chemical characterization of their seed kernel b-glucans”. Food Chemistry. 137 (1–4): 83–91. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.10.007. PMID 23199994.
  6. ^ Jump up to: a b c Chu, YiFang (2014). Oats Nutrition and Technology. Barrington, Illinois: Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-35411-7.
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b Volman, Julia J (20 November 2007). “Dietary modulation of immune function by β-glucans”. Physiology & Behavior. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.11.045.
  8. ^ Mcintosh, M (19 October 2004). “Curdlan and other bacterial (1→3)-β-D-glucans”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 68 (2): 163–173. doi:10.1007/s00253-005-1959-5.
  9. ^ Han, Man Deuk (March 2008). “Solubilization of water-insoluble β-glucan isolated from Ganoderma lucidum”. Journal of Environmental Biology.
  10. ^ Manners, David J. (2 February 1973). “The Structure of a β-(1→3)-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls”. Biochemical Journal. 135 (1): 19–30. doi:10.1042/bj1350019. PMC 1165784. PMID 4359920.
  11. ^ Teas, J (1983). “The dietary intake of Laminarin, a brown seaweed, and breast cancer prevention”. Nutrition and Cancer. Lawrence Erlbaum. 4 (3): 217–222. doi:10.1080/01635588209513760. ISSN 0163-5581. PMID 6302638.
  12. ^ Vannucci, L; Krizan, J; Sima, P; Stakheev, D; Caja, F; Rajsiglova, L; Horak, V; Saieh, M (2013). “Immunostimulatory properties and antitumor activities of glucans (Review)”. International Journal of Oncology. 43 (2): 357–64. doi:10.3892/ijo.2013.1974. PMC 3775562. PMID 23739801.
  13. ^ Jump up to: a b McRorie Jr, J. W; McKeown, N. M (2017). “Understanding the Physics of Functional Fibers in the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Evidence-Based Approach to Resolving Enduring Misconceptions about Insoluble and Soluble Fiber”. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 117 (2): 251–264. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2016.09.021. PMID 27863994.
  14. ^ Keenan, M. J.; Martin, R. J.; Raggio, A. M.; McCutcheon, K. L.; Brown, I. L.; Birkett, A.; Newman, S. S.; Skaf, J.; Hegsted, M.; Tulley, R. T.; Blair, E.; Zhou, J. (2012). “High-Amylose Resistant Starch Increases Hormones and Improves Structure and Function of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Microarray Study”. Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics. 5 (1): 26–44. doi:10.1159/000335319. PMC 4030412. PMID 22516953.
  15. ^ Simpson, H. L.; Campbell, B. J. (2015). “Review article: dietary fibre–microbiota interactions”. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 42 (2): 158–79. doi:10.1111/apt.13248. PMC 4949558. PMID 26011307.
  16. ^ Othman, R. A; Moghadasian, M. H; Jones, P. J (2011). “Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan”. Nutrition Reviews. 69 (6): 299–309. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00401.x. PMID 21631511.
  17. ^ Frey A, Giannasca KT, Weltzin R, Giannasca PJ, Reggio H, Lencer WI, Neutra MR (1996-09-01). “Role of the glycocalyx in regulating access of microparticles to apical plasma membranes of intestinal epithelial cells: implications for microbial attachment and oral vaccine targeting”. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. United States: Rockefeller University Press. 184 (3): 1045–1059. doi:10.1084/jem.184.3.1045. PMC 2192803. PMID 9064322.
  18. ^ Tsukagoshi S, Hashimoto Y, Fujii G, Kobayashi H, Nomoto K, Orita K (June 1984). “Krestin (PSK)”. Cancer Treatment Reviews. England: Saunders. 11 (2): 131–155. doi:10.1016/0305-7372(84)90005-7. PMID 6238674.
  19. ^ Hong, F; Yan J; Baran JT; Allendorf DJ; Hansen RD; Ostroff GR; Xing PX; Cheung NK; Ross GD (2004-07-15). “Mechanism by which orally administered β-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in murine tumor models”. Journal of Immunology. United States: American Association of Immunologists. 173 (2): 797–806. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.173.2.797. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 15240666.
  20. ^ Obayashi T, Yoshida M, Mori T, et al. (1995). “Plasma (13)-beta-D-glucan measurement in diagnosis of invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes”. Lancet. 345 (8941): 17–20. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(95)91152-9.
  21. ^ Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Alexander BD, Kett DH, et al. (2005). “Multicenter clinical evaluation of the (1→3)β-D-glucan assay as an aid to diagnosis of fungal infections in humans”. Clin Infect Dis. 41 (5): 654–659. doi:10.1086/432470. PMID 16080087.
  22. ^ Odabasi Z, Mattiuzzi G, Estey E, et al. (2004). “Beta-D-glucan as a diagnostic adjunct for invasive fungal infections: validation, cutoff development, and performance in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome”. Clin Infect Dis. 39 (2): 199–205. doi:10.1086/421944. PMID 15307029.
  23. ^ Mennink-Kersten MA, Warris A, Verweij PE (2006). “1,3-β-D-Glucan in patients receiving intravenous amoxicillin–clavulanic acid”. NEJM. 354 (26): 2834–2835. doi:10.1056/NEJMc053340. PMID 16807428.
  24. ^ Mennink-Kersten MA, Ruegebrink D, Verweij PE (2008). Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a cause of 1,3-β-D-glucan assay reactivity”. Clin Infect Dis. 46(12): 1930–1931. doi:10.1086/588563. PMID 18540808.
  25. ^ Lahmer, Tobias; da Costa, Clarissa Prazeres; Held, Jürgen; Rasch, Sebastian; Ehmer, Ursula; Schmid, Roland M.; Huber, Wolfgang (2017-04-04). “Usefulness of 1,3 Beta-D-Glucan Detection in non-HIV Immunocompromised Mechanical Ventilated Critically Ill Patients with ARDS and Suspected Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia”. Mycopathologia. 182 (7–8): 701–708. doi:10.1007/s11046-017-0132-x. ISSN 1573-0832. PMID 28378239.
  26. ^ He, Song; Hang, Ju-Ping; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Fang; Zhang, De-Chun; Gong, Fang-Hong (August 2015). “A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy of serum 1,3-β-D-glucan for invasive fungal infection: Focus on cutoff levels”. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection = Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran Za Zhi. 48 (4): 351–361. doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2014.06.009. ISSN 1995-9133. PMID 25081986.
  27. ^ Kullberg, Bart Jan; Arendrup, Maiken C. (2015-10-08). “Invasive Candidiasis”. The New England Journal of Medicine. 373 (15): 1445–1456. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1315399. ISSN 1533-4406. PMID 26444731.
  28. ^ Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Alexander, Barbara D.; Kett, Daniel H.; Vazquez, Jose; Pappas, Peter G.; Saeki, Fumihiro; Ketchum, Paul A.; Wingard, John; Schiff, Robert (2005-09-01). “Multicenter clinical evaluation of the (1→3) beta-D-glucan assay as an aid to diagnosis of fungal infections in humans”. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 41 (5): 654–659. doi:10.1086/432470. ISSN 1537-6591. PMID 16080087.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2013 Jun;13(5):699-708.

The effects of β-glucans on cancer metastasis.

Abstract

Beta-glucans (β-glucans), naturally occurring polysaccharides, are present as constituents of the cell wall of cereal grains, mushrooms, algae, or microbes including bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Since Pillemer et al. first prepared and investigated zymosan in the 1940s and others followed with the investigation of β-glucans in the 1960s and 1970s, researchers have well established the significant role of β-glucans on the immune system relative to cancer treatment, infection immunity, and restoration of damaged bone marrow. However, information on their biological role in anti-metastatic activity remains limited. As an immunomodulating agent, β-glucan acts through the activation of innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, granulocytes, and natural killer cells. This activation triggers the responses of adaptive immune cells such as CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells and B cells, resulting in the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. Reports have shown that β-glucans exert multiple effects on cancer cells and cancer prevention. However the mechanisms of their actions appear complex due to differences in source, chemical structure, insufficiently defined preparation, and molecular weight, hence the inconsistent and often contradictory results obtained. This review is focused on the potential of β-glucans as anti-metastatic agents and the known mechanisms underlying their biological effects.

PMID:
23140352

 

Beta glucan is a type of soluble fiber made up of polysaccharides, or combined sugars. It is not naturally found in the body. You can, however, get it through dietary supplements. There are also a number of foods high in beta glucan including:

Beta glucan and cancer

The body’s immune system protects it from infections, diseases, and other illnesses. The presence of bacteria, fungi, and viruses triggers an immune response in the body.

When you have cancer, the immune system recognizes abnormal cells and reacts to kill them off. However, if the cancer is aggressive, the immune response may not be strong enough to destroy all of the cancer cells.

Cancer affects the blood cells that fight off infections, weakening the immune system. Doctors may recommend biologic response modifiers (BRMs). A BRM is a form of immunotherapy that boosts the immune system and triggers a defense response. Beta glucans are one type of BRM.

Beta glucans can help to slow cancer growth, and prevent it from spreading to other parts of the body. Beta glucan therapy is still being researched as a treatment for cancer.

Benefits of beta glucan

Though research is ongoing, BRMs are substances that enhance immune responses. Beta glucan helps to boost weakened immune systems from:

Beta glucans may also be able to help treat cancer. Serious infections and diseases like cancer can over-activate your immune system and affect how the body defends itself. Beta glucans help to activate immune cells and trigger a defense response.

In cases of cancer, this triggered response helps the body create a coordinated attack on cancer cells. It also helps slow the growth of cancer cells.

Beta glucans have also been linked to:

See Also

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Side effects of beta glucans

Beta glucans can be taken orally or as an injection. Doctors recommend taking beta glucan as a supplement since there are little to no side effects. The few common side effects include:

If your doctor needs to inject beta glucans directly into your bloodstream, you may experience other adverse side effects including:

Outlook

Researchers are still investigating beta glucan as a treatment for cancer. While there are some success stories from immunotherapy, it is still important to pursue traditional treatment options.

If you decide to proceed with beta glucan treatment, be mindful of potential dangers and side effects. If you begin to experience any adverse reactions from beta glucans, visit a doctor immediately.

Article resources

 

 

 

Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2013 Jun;13(5):699-708.

The effects of β-glucans on cancer metastasis.

Abstract

Beta-glucans (β-glucans), naturally occurring polysaccharides, are present as constituents of the cell wall of cereal grains, mushrooms, algae, or microbes including bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Since Pillemer et al. first prepared and investigated zymosan in the 1940s and others followed with the investigation of β-glucans in the 1960s and 1970s, researchers have well established the significant role of β-glucans on the immune system relative to cancer treatment, infection immunity, and restoration of damaged bone marrow. However, information on their biological role in anti-metastatic activity remains limited. As an immunomodulating agent, β-glucan acts through the activation of innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, granulocytes, and natural killer cells. This activation triggers the responses of adaptive immune cells such as CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells and B cells, resulting in the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. Reports have shown that β-glucans exert multiple effects on cancer cells and cancer prevention. However the mechanisms of their actions appear complex due to differences in source, chemical structure, insufficiently defined preparation, and molecular weight, hence the inconsistent and often contradictory results obtained. This review is focused on the potential of β-glucans as anti-metastatic agents and the known mechanisms underlying their biological effects.

PMID:
23140352

Beta Glucan and the Immune System:

Beta glucan is a powerful immune stimulating compound found in several mushrooms, yeasts and other foods.  Beta glucan is a polysaccharide that is made up of multiple sugar molecules linked together.  The major beta glucan molecule is called 1,3-D glucan.

Polysaccharides are a diverse class of macromolecules that have a high capacity for carrying biological information due to their large structural variability. Polysaccharides interconnect at various points and form a wide range of branched structures.  The position and length of the branching gives them specific labels such as the Beta 1,3D glucan.

Beta glucans are known by scientists as “biological response modifiers” that bind to the surface of innate immune cells which allows the cells to have better coordination in their attack.  This reduces the tendancy towards auto-immune reactions and hyperinflamatory activity when the body is under attack.

Beta Glucan and Cancer:

Even a healthy immune system can get easily overwhelmed with fast growing cancer cells.  Beta glucan acts to bind to the surface of the antibodies, macrophages and NK cells in order to activate them and coordinate their attack.  This provides a significantly stronger and more efficient immune response.

Beta glucan also helps the anti-body antigen response by priming the immune cells to recognize complement –antibody complexes in order to kill the tumor cells.  The cooperation of antibodies with beta glucan is more potent than radiation or chemotherapy.  This also acts without the delirious side-effects that these traditional treatments have.

This compound activates certain immune cells such as key T-cells, macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells and the cytokines interleukin (IL) 1 and 2.  Studies have shown that it inhibits the growth of cancer and strengthens the immune response to microbial invaders. (1)

NK cells are a critical player in keeping tumor growth under control as that is there primary life focus.  These cells are designed to search the body, target and eliminate cancerous growths all day long.

Beta Glucan and Immune Stem Cells:

Beta glucan also helps stimulate the production of immune stem cells within the bone marrow.  This leads to the release of new immunocytes into the bloodstream and various lymphoid organs.

This increases the immune surveillance against potential invaders and improves the attack against cancer cells.  This is even more important when the individual is also receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation.  These conventional therapies lower circulating immune complexes and decrease immunocyte numbers making the body more susceptible to infection.

Beta glucan also stimulates various cells in the body to release anti-cancerous molecules throughout the body.  These include tumor necrosis factor, interleukins 1 & 6, hydrogen peroxide and gamma interferon which are all proven effective in the fight against cancer and invading microorganisms. (2)

Beta Glucan Helps Fight Infection:

Beta glucans have been studied for their ability to mitigate cancer cell growth and reduce the symptoms of the common cold.  In one report by the Montana Center for Work Physiology and Exercise Metabolism they studied firefighters and tracked their cold/flu symptoms.   Firefighters have very physically and emotionally stressful positions that demand a lot out of them.

The results of the study showed that those who took beta glucan instead of the placebo had a 23% reduction in upper respiratory tract infections. (3) “These results are consistent with previous clinical research involving marathoners, individuals with high stress lifestyles and the general population,” wrote Brent C. Rudy, the director of the Montana Center for Work Physiology and Exercise Metabolism.

Beta Glucan Beats Traditional Therapies:

Beta glucans ability to stimulate immunoactive molecules and improve the immune-modulation within the body is quite remarkable.   Priming and coordinating the immune system is one of the most important factors in preventing infection and the development of chronic inflammatory diseases.

There are over a thousand published scientific studies describing the various biological effects of beta glucan.(4)  The cancerostatic and immunostimulating properties that beta glucan brings to the table make it one of the safest and most potent substances available.  It is very low-cost compared to various medical interventions and much safer which make it an attractive addition to a natural cancer prevention or cancer healing program.

How Are Beta Glucans Harvested?

Beta glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharide molecules that are extracted from the cell walls of yeast.  Insoluble (1,3/1,6) B-glucans are found in brewers yeast or saccharomyces boulardii and medicinal mushrooms such as maitake, reishi and agaricus blazei murrill mushrooms.  Oats and barley contain soluble (1,3/1,4) B-glucans in their undigestable soluble fiber.  This fiber has an anti-inflammatory effect on the body.

Research has demonstrated that insoluble (1,3/1,6) B glucans have greater biological activity and immune modulating effects than the soluble form.(5)  Many individuals will benefit from consuming these through fermented foods and medicinal mushrooms.

It is also recommended to supplement with this insoluble B glucan in order to enhance your immune system function.  The specific supplemental versions of beta glucans are isolates that have removed all the potentially harmful proteins for those who are sensitive or allergic to yeast.

The Best Beta Glucan Supplement:

Not all glucans are created equal, not all sources are equal. Glucans widely differ in physiochemical and biological properties. Some glucans have no biological activity at all. This is why it is so important you know which one is the best.

After reviewing the literature, I have found that Transfer Point’s active ingredient, Glucan 300, is the most effective dietary supplement for a healthy immune system on the market.

Every single batch of TP ingredients is tested twice: when it’s first made, and then again when it is ready to be encapsulated or mixed in a formula. This ensures that the ingredient has not degraded, and that it has retained complete purity and full potency.

All the assays are conducted by independent 3rd parties. Few other supplement manufacturers can say the same. n fact, many supplement manufacturers don’t even bother to test regularly. Some of them use certificates of authenticity that are years old, which means the current lot has not been tested.

Transfer Point has every single lot receive its own certificate of analysis and they put that information right on the bottle.  I value the extra energy they put forth into guaranteeing there product is pure and effective and I know I can trust it to get my clients the results they need!

I recommend 500mg daily for good immune support, 1000 mg for high level immune support and 1000 mg – 2x daily for advanced disease cases.  Always take Beta Glucan away from food to maximize absorption.  I typically recommend 30 mins – 1 hour before a meal.

Sources For This Article Include:

1. Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E. Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system. Medicina (Kaunas). 2007;43(8):597-606. PMID: 17895634

2. Beta13DGlucan – Beta Glucan in the Fight Against Cancer Link Here

3. Talbott SM, Talbott JA. Baker’s yeast beta-glucan supplement reduces upper respiratory symptoms and improves mood state in stressed women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2012 Aug;31(4):295-300. PMID: 23378458

4. Beta Glucan Research – Condition, Function and Disease Indexed References Link Here

5. LeBlanc BW et al. The effect of PGG-beta-glucan on neutrophil chemotaxis in vivo. J Leukoc Biol. 2006 Apr;79(4):667-75. Epub 2006 Jan 13.

6. Harger-Domitrovich et al. Effects of an Immunomodulating Supplement on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms in Wildland Firefighters. Montana Center for Work Physiology and Exercise Metabolism, University of Montana, Missoula MT. Presented American College of Sports Medicine, 2008.

 

 

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