Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints. Symptoms generally include joint pain and stiffness. Other symptoms may include redness, warmth, swelling, and decreased range of motion of the affected joints. In some types other organs are also affected. Onset can be gradual or sudden.
There are over 100 types of arthritis. The most common forms are osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis usually occurs with age and affects the fingers, knees, and hips. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that often affects the hands and feet. Other types include gout, lupus, fibromyalgia, and septic arthritis. They are all types of rheumatic disease.
Treatment may include resting the joint and alternating between applying ice and heat. Weight loss and exercise may also be useful. Pain medications such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) may be used. In some a joint replacement may be useful.
Osteoarthritis affects more than 3.8% of people while rheumatoid arthritis affects about 0.24% of people. Gout affects about 1–2% of the Western population at some point in their lives. In Australia about 15% of people are affected, while in the United States more than 20% have a type of arthritis. Overall the disease becomes more common with age. Arthritis is a common reason that people miss work and can result in a decreased quality of life. The term is derived from arthr- (meaning joint) and -itis (meaning inflammation).
There are several diseases where joint pain is primary, and is considered the main feature. Generally when a person has “arthritis” it means that they have one of these diseases, which include:
TEXT UNDER CONSTRUCTION
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Gout and pseudo-gout
- Septic arthritis
- Ankylosing spondylitis
- Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
- Still’s disease
Joint pain can also be a symptom of other diseases. In this case, the arthritis is considered to be secondary to the main disease; these include:
- Psoriasis (Psoriatic arthritis)
- Reactive arthritis
- Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
- Lyme disease
- Sjogren’s disease
- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
- Celiac disease
- Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
- Inflammatory bowel disease (including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis)
- Henoch–Schönlein purpura
- Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with recurrent fever
- Whipple’s disease
- TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome
- Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (and many other vasculitis syndromes)
- Familial Mediterranean fever
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
An undifferentiated arthritis is an arthritis that does not fit into well-known clinical disease categories, possibly being an early stage of a definite rheumatic disease.
Signs and symptoms
Extra-articular features of joint disease
|Tenosynovitis (tendon sheath effusions)|
|Bursitis (swollen bursa)|
Pain, which can vary in severity, is a common symptom in virtually all types of arthritis. Other symptoms include swelling, joint stiffness and aching around the joint(s). Arthritic disorders like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis can affect other organs in the body, leading to a variety of symptoms. Symptoms may include:
- Inability to use the hand or walk
- Stiffness, which may be worse in the morning, or after use
- Malaise and fatigue
- Weight loss
- Poor sleep
- Muscle aches and pains
- Difficulty moving the joint
It is common in advanced arthritis for significant secondary changes to occur. For example, arthritic symptoms might make it difficult for a person to move around and/or exercise, which can lead to secondary effects, such as:
These changes, in addition to the primary symptoms, can have a huge impact on quality of life.
Arthritis is the most common cause of disability in the United States. More than 20 million individuals with arthritis have severe limitations in function on a daily basis. Absenteeism and frequent visits to the physician are common in individuals who have arthritis. Arthritis can make it very difficult for individuals to be physically active and some become home bound.
It is estimated that the total cost of arthritis cases is close to $100 billion of which almost 50% is from lost earnings. Each year, arthritis results in nearly 1 million hospitalizations and close to 45 million outpatient visits to health care centers.
Decreased mobility, in combination with the above symptoms, can make it difficult for an individual to remain physically active, contributing to an increased risk of obesity, high cholesterol or vulnerability to heart disease. People with arthritis are also at increased risk of depression, which may be a response to numerous factors, including fear of worsening symptoms.
Diagnosis is made by clinical examination from an appropriate health professional, and may be supported by other tests such as radiology and blood tests, depending on the type of suspected arthritis. All arthritides potentially feature pain. Pain patterns may differ depending on the arthritides and the location. Rheumatoid arthritis is generally worse in the morning and associated with stiffness lasting over 30 minutes. However, in the early stages, patients may have no symptoms after a warm shower. Osteoarthritis, on the other hand, tends to be associated with morning stiffness which eases relatively quickly with movement and exercise. In the aged and children, pain might not be the main presenting feature; the aged patient simply moves less, the infantile patient refuses to use the affected limb.
Elements of the history of the disorder guide diagnosis. Important features are speed and time of onset, pattern of joint involvement, symmetry of symptoms, early morning stiffness, tenderness, gelling or locking with inactivity, aggravating and relieving factors, and other systemic symptoms. Physical examination may confirm the diagnosis, or may indicate systemic disease. Radiographs are often used to follow progression or help assess severity.
Blood tests and X-rays of the affected joints often are performed to make the diagnosis. Screening blood tests are indicated if certain arthritides are suspected. These might include: rheumatoid factor, antinuclear factor (ANF), extractable nuclear antigen, and specific antibodies.
Main article: Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It can affect both the larger and the smaller joints of the body, including the hands, wrists, feet, back, hip, and knee. The disease is essentially one acquired from daily wear and tear of the joint; however, osteoarthritis can also occur as a result of injury. In recent years[when?], some joint or limb deformities, such as knock-knee or acetabular overcoverage or dysplasia, have also been considered as a predisposing factor for knee or hip osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis begins in the cartilage and eventually causes the two opposing bones to erode into each other. The condition starts with minor pain during physical activity, but soon the pain can be continuous and even occur while in a state of rest. The pain can be debilitating and prevent one from doing some activities. Osteoarthritis typically affects the weight-bearing joints, such as the back, knee and hip. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis is most commonly a disease of the elderly. More than 30 percent of women have some degree of osteoarthritis by age 65. Risk factors for osteoarthritis include prior joint trauma, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle.
Main article: Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disorder in which the body’s own immune system starts to attack body tissues. The attack is not only directed at the joint but to many other parts of the body. In rheumatoid arthritis, most damage occurs to the joint lining and cartilage which eventually results in erosion of two opposing bones. RA often affects joints in the fingers, wrists, knees and elbows, is symmetrical (appears on both sides of the body), and can lead to severe deformity in a few years if not treated. RA occurs mostly in people aged 20 and above. In children, the disorder can present with a skin rash, fever, pain, disability, and limitations in daily activities. With earlier diagnosis and aggressive treatment, many individuals can lead a better quality of life than if going undiagnosed for long after RA’s onset. The drugs to treat RA range from corticosteroids to monoclonal antibodies given intravenously. Treatments also include analgesics such as NSAIDs and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), while in rare cases, surgery may be required to replace joints, but there is no cure for the disease.
Treatment with DMARDs is designed to initiate an adaptive immune response, in part by CD4+ T helper (Th) cells, specifically Th17 cells. Th17 cells are present in higher quantities at the site of bone destruction in joints and produce inflammatory cytokines associated with inflammation, such as interleukin-17 (IL-17).
Bone erosion is a central feature of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone continuously undergoes remodeling by actions of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts. One of the main triggers of bone erosion in the joints in rheumatoid arthritis is inflammation of the synovium, caused in part by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), a cell surface protein present in Th17 cells and osteoblasts. Osteoclast activity can be directly induced by osteoblasts through the RANK/RANKL mechanism.
Main article: Lupus erythematosus
Lupus is a common collagen vascular disorder that can be present with severe arthritis. Other features of lupus include a skin rash, extreme photosensitivity, hair loss, kidney problems, lung fibrosis and constant joint pain.
Main article: Gout
Gout is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint, causing inflammation. There is also an uncommon form of gouty arthritis caused by the formation of rhomboid crystals of calcium pyrophosphate known as pseudogout. In the early stages, the gouty arthritis usually occurs in one joint, but with time, it can occur in many joints and be quite crippling. The joints in gout can often become swollen and lose function. Gouty arthritis can become particularly painful and potentially debilitating when gout cannot successfully be treated. When uric acid levels and gout symptoms cannot be controlled with standard gout medicines that decrease the production of uric acid (e.g., allopurinol, febuxostat) or increase uric acid elimination from the body through the kidneys (e.g., probenecid), this can be referred to as refractory chronic gout or RCG.
Comparison of types
Comparison of some major forms of arthritis
|Osteoarthritis||Rheumatoid arthritis||Gouty arthritis|
|Speed of onset||Months||Weeks-months||Hours for an attack|
|Main locations||Weight-bearing joints (such as knees, hips, vertebral column) and hands||Hands (proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joint) wrists, ankles, knees and hips||Great toe, ankles, knees and elbows|
|Inflammation||May occur, though often mild compared to inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis||Yes||Yes|
|Laboratory findings||None||Anemia, elevated ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibody||Crystal in joints|
Infectious arthritis is another severe form of arthritis. It presents with sudden onset of chills, fever and joint pain. The condition is caused by bacteria elsewhere in the body. Infectious arthritis must be rapidly diagnosed and treated promptly to prevent irreversible joint damage.
Psoriasis can develop into psoriatic arthritis. With psoriatic arthritis, most individuals develop the skin problem first and then the arthritis. The typical features are of continuous joint pains, stiffness and swelling. The disease does recur with periods of remission but there is no cure for the disorder. A small percentage develop a severe painful and destructive form of arthritis which destroys the small joints in the hands and can lead to permanent disability and loss of hand function.
There is no known cure for either rheumatoid or osteoarthritis. Treatment options vary depending on the type of arthritis and include physical therapy, lifestyle changes (including exercise and weight control), orthopedic bracing, and medications. Joint replacement surgery may be required in eroding forms of arthritis. Medications can help reduce inflammation in the joint which decreases pain. Moreover, by decreasing inflammation, the joint damage may be slowed.
In general, studies have shown that physical exercise of the affected joint can noticeably improve long-term pain relief. Furthermore, exercise of the arthritic joint is encouraged to maintain the health of the particular joint and the overall body of the person.
Individuals with arthritis can benefit from both physical and occupational therapy. In arthritis the joints become stiff and the range of movement can be limited. Physical therapy has been shown to significantly improve function, decrease pain, and delay need for surgical intervention in advanced cases. Exercise prescribed by a physical therapist has been shown to be more effective than medications in treating osteoarthritis of the knee. Exercise often focuses on improving muscle strength, endurance and flexibility. In some cases, exercises may be designed to train balance. Occupational therapy can provide assistance with activities. Assistive technology is a tool used to aid a person’s disability by reducing their physical barriers by improving the use of their damaged body part, typically after an amputation. Assistive technology devices can be customized to the patient or bought commercially. .
There are several types of medications that are used for the treatment of arthritis. Treatment typically begins with medications that have the fewest side effects with further medications being added if insufficiently effective.
Depending on the type of arthritis, the medications that are given may be different. For example, the first-line treatment for osteoarthritis is acetaminophen (paracetamol) while for inflammatory arthritis it involves non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen. Opioids and NSAIDs are less well tolerated.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is autoimmune so, in addition to pain medications and anti-inflammatory drugs, is treated with another category of drug called disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), which act on the immune system to slow down the progression of RA. An example of this type of drug is methotrexate.
A number of rheumasurgical interventions have been incorporated in the treatment of arthritis since the 1950s. Arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee provides no additional benefit to optimized physical and medical therapy.
Further research is required to determine if transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for knee osteoarthritis is effective for controlling pain.
Low level laser therapy may be considered for relief of pain and stiffness associated with arthritis. Evidence of benefit is tentative.
Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy has tentative evidence supporting improved functioning but no evidence of improved pain in osteoarthritis. The FDA has not approved PEMF for the treatment of arthritis. In Canada, PEMF devices are legally licensed by Health Canada for the treatment of pain associated with arthritic conditions.
Arthritis is predominantly a disease of the elderly, but children can also be affected by the disease. More than 70% of individuals in North America affected by arthritis are over the age of 65. Arthritis is more common in women than men at all ages and affects all races, ethnic groups and cultures. In the United States a CDC survey based on data from 2007–2009 showed 22.2% (49.9 million) of adults aged ≥18 years had self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis, and 9.4% (21.1 million or 42.4% of those with arthritis) had arthritis-attributable activity limitation (AAAL). With an aging population, this number is expected to increase.
Disability due to musculoskeletal disorders increased by 45% from 1990 to 2010. Of these, osteoarthritis is the fastest increasing major health condition. Among the many reports on the increased prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions, data from Africa are lacking and underestimated. A systematic review assessed the prevalence of arthritis in Africa and included twenty population-based and seven hospital-based studies. The majority of studies, twelve, were from South Africa. Nine studies were well-conducted, eleven studies were of moderate quality, and seven studies were conducted poorly. The results of the systematic review were as follows:
- Rheumatoid arthritis: 0.1% in Algeria (urban setting); 0.6% in Democratic Republic of Congo (urban setting); 2.5% and 0.07% in urban and rural settings in South Africa respectively; 0.3% in Egypt (rural setting), 0.4% in Lesotho (rural setting)
- Osteoarthritis: 55.1% in South Africa (urban setting); ranged from 29.5 to 82.7% in South Africans aged 65 years and older
- Knee osteoarthritis has the highest prevalence from all types of osteoarthritis, with 33.1% in rural South Africa
- Ankylosing spondylitis: 0.1% in South Africa (rural setting)
- Psoriatic arthritis: 4.4% in South Africa (urban setting)
- Gout: 0.7% in South Africa (urban setting)
- Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 0.3% in Egypt (urban setting)
Evidence of osteoarthritis and potentially inflammatory arthritis has been discovered in dinosaurs. The first known traces of human arthritis date back as far as 4500 BC. In early reports, arthritis was frequently referred to as the most common ailment of prehistoric peoples. It was noted in skeletal remains of Native Americans found in Tennessee and parts of what is now Olathe, Kansas. Evidence of arthritis has been found throughout history, from Ötzi, a mummy (circa 3000 BC) found along the border of modern Italy and Austria, to the Egyptian mummies circa 2590 BC.
In 1715, William Musgrave published the second edition of his most important medical work, De arthritide symptomatica, which concerned arthritis and its effects.
The term is derived from arthr- (from Ancient Greek: ἄρθρον, translit. árthron, lit. ‘joint, limb’) and -itis (from -ῖτις, -îtis, lit. ’pertaining to’), the latter suffix having come to be associated with inflammation.
The word ‘arthritides’ denotes the collective group of arthritis-like conditions.
- Arthritis Care (charity in the UK)
- Arthritis Foundation (US not-for-profit)
- Knee arthritis
- Weather pains
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Arthritis and arthrosis sound similar. Both of them affect your bones, ligaments, and joints. They also share many of the same symptoms, including joint stiffness and pain. But the difference between the two is important.
Arthritis is an umbrella term. It’s used to describe several conditions that cause inflammation in your joints. In some cases, the inflammation can also affect your skin, muscles, and organs. Examples include osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and gout.
Arthrosis is another name for OA, one type of arthritis. It’s the most common type of arthritis, according to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. It’s caused by normal wear and tear on your joints and cartilage. Cartilage is the slippery tissue that covers the ends of your bones and helps your joints move. Over time, your cartilage can deteriorate and may even disappear completely. This results in bone-to-bone contact in your joints, causing pain, stiffness, and sometimes swelling.
Arthrosis can affect any joint in your body. It’s most likely to affect the joints of your hands, neck, knees, and hips. Your risk of developing it increases with age.
The symptoms of arthritis vary from one type to another. Joint pain and stiffness are the two most common. Other common symptoms of arthritis include:
- swelling in your joints
- redness of the skin around affected joints
- reduced range of motion in affected joints
The most common symptoms of arthrosis, in particular, include:
- joint pain
- joint stiffness
- tenderness around affected joints
- reduced flexibility in affected joints
- bone-to-bone grating or rubbing
- bone spurs, or small bits of extra bone growth that may develop around affected joints
Your risk of developing arthrosis, as well as some other types of arthritis, can be affected by:
- Age: Arthrosis and many other types of arthritis are more common in older people.
- Gender: Women are more likely to develop arthrosis, as well as RA. Men are more likely to develop gout.
- Weight: Extra weight puts more pressure on your joints. This raises your risk of joint damage and arthrosis. Being overweight also raises your risk of some other types of arthritis.
- Injuries: Accidents and infections can damage your joints, raising your risk of arthrosis. It can also raise your chances of developing some other types of arthritis.
- Joint deformities: Malformed cartilage and uneven joints increase your risk of arthrosis.
- Occupation: Work that requires you to put a lot of stress on joints can increase your risk of arthrosis.
- Genes: You’re more likely to develop arthrosis if you have a family history of the condition. Your genes also affect your chances of developing other types of arthritis like RA.
Your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms and family history. This will help them diagnose your type of arthritis. They will also conduct a physical exam. They may also conduct one or more tests, such as:
- blood tests to check for markers of inflammation and infection
- joint aspiration to collect and analyze a sample of fluid from an affected joint
- arthroscopy or other imaging tests, such X-rays or MRI scans, to visually examine your affected joints
Arthroscopy involves your doctor inserting a small camera near one of more of your affected joints. This will allow them to get a closer look.
Your doctor will recommend a treatment plan for arthrosis, or other types of arthritis. Treatments may include:
- Medication: These include over-the-counter (OTC) acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
- Physical therapy: A therapist will teach you to perform exercises to help you strengthen and stabilize your joints and regain or maintain your range of motion.
- Occupational therapy: A therapist will help you develop strategies to adjust your work environment or habits to help manage your condition.
- Orthotics: These include braces, splints, or shoe inserts that help relieve stress and pressure on damaged joints.
- Joint surgery: A joint replacement or joint fusion will clean, replace, or fuse damaged joints.
In most cases, your doctor will encourage you to try less invasive treatments before they recommend surgery.
There are different forms of arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in the joints. Unlike osteoarthritis, the common arthritis that develops from wear and tear on joints and usually develops as people age, RA can affect the young and old in general and in particular those who lack sunlight (Source). The disease can cause enormous suffering, it may attack the eyes, mouth and lungs as well as joints (Source). According to the National Institutes of Health, there’s no known cause for RA and treatments include steroids and other drugs that can have serious side effects. Yet, Lancet show decades ago plant-based diet was one of the therapeutic keys. Source See also a New York Times article(Source). Quercetin, Oregano and dental hygiene are also important…To read more, click here..
“… Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 1 and multiple sclerosis. Reduced vitamin D intake has been linked to increased susceptibility to the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and vitamin D deficiency has been found to be associated with disease activity in patients with RA (…) CONCLUSION: It appears that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with RA, and that vitamin D deficiency may be linked to disease severity in RA. As vitamin D deficiency has been linked to diffuse musculoskeletal pain, these results have therapeutic implications. Vitamin D supplementation may be needed both for the prevention of osteoporosis as well as for pain relief in patients with RA”. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;3(6):181-7. Vitamin D and rheumatoid arthritis. Kostoglou-Athanassiou I, Athanassiou P, Lyraki A, Raftakis I, Antoniadis C. Source Department of Endocrinology, Red Cross Hospital, 7 Korinthias Street, 115 26 Athens, Greece. Source (ie, mega dosages of vitamin D, not always appropriate, sunlight much better, source).
HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS, OREGANO AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
The ability of the body to tolerate wear and tear before it enters into an inflammatory auto-immune state of accelerated tissue damage is of the utmost importance to preserving health. An emerging body of science shows that certain T cells act to regulate tolerance to high stress by activating a natural anti-inflammatory defense system referred to as heat shock proteins (HSP). One’s ability to activate HSP is associated with longevity. It’s action mechanism is connected to gene signaling that activate HSP. The primary traditional use of oregano oil is as a pain and germ killer, with documented anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-parasitic activity. Carvacrol Induces Heat Shock Protein 60. Source Heat-shock proteins, especially Hsp70 are involved in binding antigens and presenting them to the immune system (Source), including binding protein fragments from dead malignant cells and presenting them to the immune system.
Top: Oregano, a medicinal plant that grows wild all over the Pyrenean center thanks to which we may be able to offer en masse this herb to the Holwerrc’s clients.
“OBJECTIVE: Stress proteins, such as members of the heat-shock protein (HSP) family, are up-regulated by cells in inflamed tissue and can be viewed functionally as “biomarkers” for the immune system to monitor inflammation. Exogenous administration of stress proteins has induced immunoregulation in various models of inflammation and has also been shown to be effective in clinical trials in humans. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that boosting of endogenous HSP expression can restore effective immunoregulation through T cells specific for stress proteins. METHODS: Stress protein expression was manipulated in vivo and in vitro with a food component (carvacrol), and immune recognition of stress proteins was studied. RESULTS: Carvacrol, a major compound in the oil of many Origanum species, had a notable capacity to coinduce cellular Hsp70 expression in vitro and, upon intragastric administration, in Peyer’s patches of mice in vivo. As a consequence, carvacrol specifically promoted T cell recognition of endogenous Hsp70, as demonstrated in vitro by the activation of an Hsp70-specific T cell hybridoma and in vivo by amplified T cell responses to Hsp70. Carvacrol administration also increased the number of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells, systemically in the spleen and locally in the joint, and almost completely suppressed proteoglycan-induced experimental arthritis. Furthermore, protection against arthritis could be transferred with T cells isolated from carvacrol-fed mice. CONCLUSION: These findings illustrate that a food component can boost protective T cell responses to a self stress protein and down-regulate inflammatory disease, i.e., that the immune system can respond to diet.”Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Apr;62(4):1026-35. doi: 10.1002/art.27344. A novel heat-shock protein coinducer boosts stress protein Hsp70 to activate T cell regulation of inflammation in autoimmune arthritis. Wieten L, van der Zee R, Spiering R, Wagenaar-Hilbers J, van Kooten P, Broere F, van Eden W. Source Institute of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Anecdotally, cherry juice has been used as a treatment for gout-related pain for decades. Though sample sizes are small, studies are also revealing that this juice might help with other types of joint pain and inflammation as well, including that caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Tart cherries have higher levels of anthocyanin, a phytonutrient and antioxidant, than sweet cherries and other fruits, making them power berries to reduce inflammation and pain, improve recovery time after strenuous activity.
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND PLANT BASED DIET
“Fasting is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, but most patients relapse on reintroduction of food. The effect of fasting followed by one year of a vegetarian diet was assessed in a randomised, single-blind controlled trial. 27 patients were allocated to a four-week stay at a health farm. After an initial 7-10 day subtotal fast, they were put on an individually adjusted gluten-free vegan diet for 3.5 months. The food was then gradually changed to a lactovegetarian diet for the remainder of the study. A control group of 26 patients stayed for four weeks at a convalescent home, but ate an ordinary diet throughout the whole study period. After four weeks at the health farm the diet group showed a significant improvement in number of tender joints, Ritchie’s articular index, number of swollen joints, pain score, duration of morning stiffness, grip strength, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and a health assessment questionnaire score. In the control group, only pain score improved score. In the control group, only pain score improved significantly. The benefits in the diet group were still present after one year, and evaluation of the whole course showed significant advantages for the diet group in all measured indices. This dietary regimen seems to be a useful supplement to conventional medical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.” Lancet. 1991 Oct 12;338(8772):899-902. Controlled trial of fasting and one-year vegetarian diet in rheumatoid arthritis. Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Haugen M, Borchgrevink CF, Laerum E, Eek M, Mowinkel P, Hovi K, Førre O. Source Department of General Practice, University of Oslo, Norway. Source
Not to be confused with Arteritis.
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