Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that affect the body in variety of ways, also regulating inflammatory mediation. An anti-flammatory diet includes fewer foods that create inflammation-causing prostaglandins (PGE2) in the body, and more foods that create anti-inflammatory prostaglandins (PGE1 and PGE3).[not in citation given]
Suggested diets to reduce inflammation include those rich in vegetables and low in simple carbohydrates, and fats such as saturated fats and trans fats. Anti-inflammatory foods include most colorful fruits and vegetables, oily fish (which contain higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids), nuts, seeds, and certain spices, such as ginger, garlic and cayenne. Extra-virgin olive oil contains the chemical oleocanthal that acts similarly to ibuprofen. Those following an anti-inflammatory diet will avoid refined oils and sugars, and show a preference for so-called anti-inflammatory foods in their meal choices.
Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to disrupt inflammation cell signaling pathways by binding to the GPR120 receptor. This benefit however can be inhibited or even reversed if the ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 is too high as Omega-6 serves as a precursor to inflammatory chemicals (prostaglandin and leukotriene eicosanoids) in the body. A high proportion of omega-6 to omega-3 fat in the diet shifts the physiological state in the tissues toward the pathogenesis of many diseases: prothrombotic, proinflammatory and proconstrictive. Omega-6 competes with Omega-3 for the same rate limiting factor which is required for the health-benefits of Omega-3, directly reducing the action of Omega-3 in addition to pharmacologically counteracting Omega-3 benefits through its own action as a pro-inflammatory agent.
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- Simopoulos, A.P. (2003). “Importance of the Ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids: Evolutionary Aspects”. In Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Cleland, Leslie G. Omega-6/Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acid Ratio: The Scientific Evidence. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. 92. pp. 1–22. doi:10.1159/000073788. ISBN 978-3-8055-7640-6. PMID 14579680.