Allium Family

Allium is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes hundreds of species, including the cultivated onion, garlic, scallion, shallot, leek, and chives. The generic name Allium is the Latin word for garlic,[4][5] and the type species for the genus is Allium sativum which means “cultivated garlic”.[6]

Linnaeus first described the genus Allium in 1753. Some sources refer to Greek αλεω (aleo, to avoid) by reason of the smell of garlic.[7] Various Allium have been cultivated from the earliest times, and about a dozen species are economically important as crops, or garden vegetables, and an increasing number of species are important as ornamental plants.[7][8]

The decision to include a species in the genus Allium is taxonomically difficult, and species boundaries are unclear. Estimates of the number of species are as low as 260,[9] and as high as 979.[10]

Allium species occur in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere, except for a few species occurring in Chile (such as A. juncifolium), Brazil (A. sellovianum), and tropical Africa (A. spathaceum). They vary in height between 5 cm and 150 cm. The flowers form an umbel at the top of a leafless stalk. The bulbs vary in size between species, from small (around 2–3 mm in diameter) to rather large (8–10 cm). Some species (such as Welsh onion A. fistulosum) develop thickened leaf-bases rather than forming bulbs as such.

Plants of the genus Allium produce chemical compounds, mostly derived from cysteine sulfoxides, that give them a characteristic onion, or garlic, taste and odor.[7] Many are used as food plants, though not all members of the genus are equally flavorful. In most cases, both bulb and leaves are edible. The cooking and consumption of parts of the plants is due to the large variety of textures, and flavours, which may be strong or weak, that they can impart to the dish they are used in. The characteristic Alliumflavor depends on the sulfate content of the soil the plant grows in.[7] In the rare occurrence of sulfur-free growth conditions, all Allium species completely lose their usual pungency.

In the APG III classification system, Allium is placed in the family Amaryllidaceae, subfamily Allioideae (formerly the family Alliaceae).[11] In some of the older classification systems, Allium was placed in Liliaceae.[7][8][12][13][14] Molecular phylogeneticstudies have shown this circumscription of Liliaceae is not monophyletic.

Allium is one of about fifty-seven genera of flowering plants with more than 500 species.[15] It is by far the largest genus in the Amaryllidaceae, and also in the Alliaceae in classification systems in which that family is recognized as separate.[9]

Capsule of Allium oreophilum.

The genus Allium (alliums) is characterised by herbaceous geophyte perennials with true bulbs, some of which are borne on rhizomes and an onion or garlic odor and flavor.[16]

The bulbs are solitary or clustered and tunicate and the plants are perennialized by the bulbs reforming annually from the base of the old bulbs, or are produced on the ends of rhizomes or, in a few species, at the ends of stolons. A small number of species have tuberous roots. The bulbs’ outer coats are commonly brown or grey, with a smooth texture, and are fibrous, or with cellular reticulation. The inner coats of the bulbs are membranous.

Many alliums have basal leaves that commonly wither away from the tips downward before or while the plants flower, but some species have persistent foliage. Plants produce from one to 12 leaves, most species having linear, channeled or flat leaf blades. The leaf blades are straight or variously coiled, but some species have broad leaves, including A. victorialis and A. tricoccum. The leaves are sessile, and very rarely narrowed into a petiole.

The flowers, which are produced on scapes are erect or in some species pendent, having six petal-like tepals produced in two whorls. The flowers have one style and six epipetalous stamens; the anthers and pollen can vary in color depending on the species. The ovaries are superior, and three-lobed with three locules.

The fruits are capsules that open longitudinally along the capsule wall between the partitions of the locule.[17][18] The seeds are black, and have a rounded shape.

The terete or flattened flowering scapes are normally persistent. The inflorescences are umbels, in which the outside flowers bloom first and flowering progresses to the inside. Some species produce bulbils within the umbels, and in some species, such as Allium paradoxum, the bulbils replace some or all the flowers. The umbels are subtended by noticeable spathe bracts, which are commonly fused and normally have around three veins.

Some bulbous alliums increase by forming little bulbs or “offsets” around the old one, as well as by seed. Several species can form many bulbils in the flowerhead; in the so-called “tree onion” or Egyptian onion (A. × proliferum) the bulbils are few, but large enough to be pickled.

Many of the species of Allium have been used as food items throughout their ranges. There are several poisonous species that are somewhat similar in appearance (e.g. in North America, death camas, Toxicoscordion venenosum), but none of these has the distinctive scent of onions or garlic.[19][20]

 Taxonomy of Allium

With over 850 species[21] Allium is the sole genus in the Allieae, one of four tribes of subfamily Allioideae (Amaryllidaceae). New species continue to be described[21] and Allium is one of the largest monocotyledonous genera,[22] but the precise taxonomy of Allium is poorly understood,[22][21] with incorrect descriptions being widespread. The difficulties arise from the fact that the genus displays considerable polymorphism and has adapted to a wide variety of habitats. Furthermore, traditional classications had been based on homoplasious characteristics (the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages). However, the genus has been shown to be monophyletic, containing three major clades, although some proposed subgenera are not.[22] Some progress is being made using molecular phylogenetic methods, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, including the 5.8S rDNA and the two spacers ITS1 and ITS2, is one of the more commonly used markers in the study of the differentiation of the Allium species.[21]

Allium includes a number of taxonomic groupings previously considered separate genera (Caloscordum Herb., Milula Prain and Nectaroscordum Lindl.) Allium spicatumhad been treated by many authors as Milula spicata, the only species in the monospecific genus Milula. In 2000, it was shown to be embedded in Allium.[23

When Linnaeus[2] formerly described the genus Allium in his Species Plantarum (1753), there were thirty species with this name. He placed Allium in a grouping he referred to as Hexandria monogynia (i.e. six stamens and one pistil)[24] containing 51 genera in all.[25]

Linnaeus originally grouped his 30 species into three alliances, e.g. Foliis caulinis planis. Since then, many attempts have been made to divide the growing number of recognised species into infrageneric subgroupings, initially as sections, and then as subgenera further divided into sections. For a brief history, see Li et al. (2010)[22] The modern era of phylogenetic analysis dates to 1996.[26] In 2006 Friesen, Fritsch, and Blattner[27] described a new classification with 15 subgenera, 56 sections, and about 780 species based on the nuclear ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacers. Some of the subgenera correspond to the once separate genera (Caloscordum, Milula, Nectaroscordum) included in the Gilliesieae.[22][28] The terminology has varied with some authors subdividing subgenera into Sections and others Alliances. The term Alliance has also been used for subgroupings within species, e.g. Allium nigrum, and for subsections.[29]

Subsequent molecular phylogenetic studies have shown the 2006 classification is a considerable improvement over previous classifications, but some of its subgenera and sections are probably not monophyletic. Meanwhile, the number of new species continued to increase, reaching 800 by 2009, and the pace of discovery has not decreased. Detailed studies have focused on a number of subgenera, including Amerallium. Amerallium is strongly supported as monophyletic.[30] Subgenus Melanocrommyum has also been the subject of considerable study (see below), while work on subgenus Allium has focussed on section Allium, including Allium ampeloprasum, although sampling was not sufficient to test the monophyly of the section.[31]

The major evolutionary lineages or lines correspond to the three major clades. Line one (the oldest) with three subgenera is predominantly bulbous, the second, with five subgenera and the third with seven subgenera contain both bulbous and rhizomatous taxa.[22]

  List of Allium species

The three evolutionary lineages and 15 subgenera represent the classification scheme of Friesen et al. (2006)[27] and Li (2010).[22] (number of sections/number of species)

    1. Nectaroscordum (Lindl.) Asch. et Graebn Type: Allium siculum (1/3) Mediterranean bells, Sicilian honey garlic
    2. Microscordum (Maxim.) N. Friesen Type: Allium monanthum (1/1)
    3. Amerallium Traub Type: Allium canadense (12/135)
  • Second evolutionary line
    1. Caloscordum (Herb.) R. M. Fritsch Type: Allium neriniflorum (1/3)
    2. Anguinum (G. Don ex Koch) N. Friesen Type: Allium victorialis (1/12)
    3. Porphyroprason (Ekberg) R. M. Fritsch Type: Allium oreophilum (1/1)
    4. Vvedenskya (Kamelin) R. M. Fritsch Type: Allium kujukense (1/1)
    5. Melanocrommyum (Webb et Berthel.) Rouy Type: Allium nigrum (20/160)
  • Third evolutionary line
    1. Butomissa (Salisb.) N. Friesen Type: Allium ramosum (2/4) fragrant garlic
    2. Cyathophora R. M. Fritsch Type: Allium cyathophorum (3/5)
    3. Rhizirideum (G. Don ex Koch) Wendelbo s.s Type: Allium senescens (5/37)
    4. Allium L. Type: Allium sativum (15/300) garlic
    5. Reticulatobulbosa (Kamelin) N. Friesen Type: Allium lineare (5/80)
    6. Polyprason Radic Type: Allium moschatum (4/50)
    7. Cepa (Mill.) Radic ́ Type: Allium cepa (5/30) onion, garden onion, bulb onion, common onion

Although this lineage consists of three subgenera, nearly all the species are attributed to subgenus Amerallium, the third largest subgenus of Allium. The lineage is considered to represent the most ancient line within Allium, and to be the only lineage that is purely bulbous, the other two having both bulbous and rhizomatous taxa. Within the lineage Amerallium is a sister group to the other two subgenera (Microscordum+Nectaroscordum).[22]

Nearly all the species in this lineage of five subgenera are accounted for by subgenus Melanocrommyum, which is most closely associated with subgenera Vvedenskyaand Porphyroprason, phylogenetically. These three genera are late-branching whereas the remaining two subgenera, Caloscordum and Anguinum, are early branching.[22

The third evolutionary line contains the most number of sections (seven) and also the largest subgenus of the genus Allium, subgenus Allium which includes the type species of the genus, Allium sativum. This subgenus also contains the majority of the species in the line. Within the lineage the phylogeny is complex. Two small subgenera Butomissa and Cyathophora form a sister clade to the remaining five subgenera, with Butomissa as the first branching group. Amongst the remaining five subgenera, Rhizirideum forms a medium-sized subgenus that is the sister to the other four larger subgenera. However, they may not be monophyletic.[22]

The majority of Allium species are native to the Northern Hemisphere, being spread throughout the holarctic region, from dry subtropics to the boreal zone,[22] but predominantly in Asia. Of the latter 138 species occur in China, about a sixth of all species, representing five subgenera.[22] A few species are native to Africa and Central and South America.[17] A single known exception, Allium dregeanum occurs in the Southern Hemisphere (South Africa). There are two centres of diversity, a major one from the Mediterranean Basin to Central Asia and Pakistan, while a minor one is found in western North America.[22] The genus is especially diverse in the eastern Mediterranean.[32]

Species grow in various conditions from dry, well-drained mineral-based soils to moist, organic soils; most grow in sunny locations, but a number also grow in forests (e.g., A. ursinum),[7] or even in swamps or water.[citation needed]

Various Allium species are used as food plants by the larvae of the leek moth and onion fly[7] as well as some Lepidoptera including cabbage moth, common swift moth (recorded on garlic), garden dart moth, large yellow underwing moth, nutmeg moth, setaceous Hebrew character moth, turnip moth and Schinia rosea, a moth that feeds exclusively on Allium species.[citation needed]

Selection of cultivated alliums displayed at the BBC Gardeners’ World Live show

Many Allium species have been harvested through human history, but only about a dozen are still economically important today as crops or garden vegetables.[7][33]

Many Allium species and hybrids are cultivated as ornamentals.[34] These include A. cristophii and A. giganteum, which are used as border plants for their ornamental flowers, and their “architectural” qualities.[8][35] Several hybrids have been bred, or selected, with rich purple flowers. A. hollandicum ‘Purple Sensation’ is one of the most popular and has been given an Award of Garden Merit (H4).[36] These ornamental onions produce spherical umbels on single stalks in spring and summer, in a wide variety of sizes and colours, ranging from white (Allium ‘Mont Blanc’), blue (A. caeruleum), to yellow (A. flavum) and purple (A. giganteum). By contrast, other species (such as invasive A. triquetrum and A. ursinum) can become troublesome garden weeds.[35][37]

The following cultivars, of uncertain or mixed parentage, have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit:

  • ’Ambassador’[38]
  • ’Beau Regard’[39]
  • ’Gladiator’[40]
  • ’Globemaster’[41]
  • ’Round and Purple’[42]

Dogs and cats are very susceptible to poisoning after the consumption of certain species.[7][43]

The genus includes many economically important species. These include onions (A. cepa), French shallots (A. oschaninii), leeks (A. ampeloprasum), scallions (various Allium species), and herbs such as garlic (A. sativum) and chives (A. schoenoprasum). Some have been used as traditional medicines.[22]

  1. ^ “1793 illustration from William Woodville: “Medical botany”, London, James Phillips, 1793, Vol. 3, Plate 168: Allium sativum (Garlic). Hand-coloured engraving”. Archived from the original on 2011-02-17. Retrieved 2015-04-07.
  2. ^ Jump up to: a b Linnaeus 1753, Allium I pp. 294–301
  3. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  4. ^ Quattrocchi 1999, vol. 1 p. 91.
  5. ^ Gledhill, David (2008). “The Names of Plants”. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866453 (hardback), ISBN 9780521685535 (paperback). pp 43
  6. ^ Allium In: Index Nominum Genericorum. In: Regnum Vegetabile (see External links below).
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i Eric Block (2010). Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-190-9.
  8. ^ Jump up to: a b c Dilys Davies (1992). Alliums: The Ornamental Onions. Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-241-7.
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b Knud Rahn. 1998. “Alliaceae” pages 70-78. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume III. Springer-Verlag: Berlin;Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN 978-3-540-64060-8
  10. ^ The Plant List, for genus Allium
  11. ^ Chase, M.W.; Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.F. (2009). “A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae”. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 132–136. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x.
  12. ^ James L. Brewster, “Onions and Other Alliums” (Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2008)
  13. ^ Haim D. Rabinowitch, Leslie Currah, “Allium Crop Sciences: Recent Advances” (Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2002)
  14. ^ Penny Woodward, “Garlic and Friends: The History, Growth and Use of Edible Alliums” (South Melbourne: Hyland House, 1996)
  15. ^ Frodin, David G. (2004). “History and concepts of big plant genera”. Taxon. 53(3): 753–776. doi:10.2307/4135449. JSTOR 4135449.
  16. ^ Wheeler et al 2013.
  17. ^ Jump up to: a b “Allium in Flora of China @”. Efloras.org. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  18. ^ “Allium in Flora of North America @”. Efloras.org. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  19. ^ Peterson, R.P. 1982. A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants: Eastern and central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  20. ^ Gibbons, E. 1962. Stalking the wild asparagus. David McKay, New York.
  21. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Deniz et al 2015.
  22. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Li et al. 2010.
  23. ^ Friesen et al 2000.
  24. ^ Linnaeus Sexual System 2015.
  25. ^ Linnaeus 1753, Hexandria monogynia I pp. 285–332.
  26. ^ von Berg et al 1996.
  27. ^ Jump up to: a b c Friesen, Fritsch & Blattner 2006.
  28. ^ Sykorova 2006.
  29. ^ Fritsch et al 2010.
  30. ^ Nguyen et al 2008.
  31. ^ Hirschegger et al 2010.
  32. ^ Tzanoudakis & Trigas 2015.
  33. ^ Gualtiero Simonetti (1990). Stanley Schuler, ed. Simon & Schuster’s Guide to Herbs and Spices. Simon & Schuster, Inc. ISBN 978-0-671-73489-3.
  34. ^ Anthony Huxley, Mark Griffiths, and Margot Levy (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press,Limited: London. The Stockton Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-333-47494-5 (set).
  35. ^ Jump up to: a b Brickell, Christopher (Editor-in-chief),The Royal Horticultural Society A–Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants, p.95, Dorling Kindersley, London, 1996, ISBN 0-7513-0303-8
  36. ^ RHS Plant Finder 2009–2010, p68, Dorling Kindersley, London, 2009, ISBN 978-1-4053-4176-9
  37. ^ Lloyd, Christopher & Rice, Graham, (1991) Garden Flowers From Seed, p45, Viking, ISBN 0-670-82455-0
  38. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Allium ‘Ambassador. Royal Horticultural Society. 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  39. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Allium ‘Beau Regard. Royal Horticultural Society. 1995. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  40. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Allium ‘Gladiator. Royal Horticultural Society. 1995. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  41. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Allium ‘Globemaster. Royal Horticultural Society. 1995. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  42. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Allium ‘Round and Purple. Royal Horticultural Society. 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  43. ^ Cope RB. Toxicology Brief: Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats. Veterinary Medicine 2005

 

 

Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive,[2] and Chinese onion.[3]

Garlic is native to Central Asia and northeastern Iran, and has long been a common seasoning worldwide, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use.[4][5] It was known to ancient Egyptians, and has been used both as a food flavoring and as a traditional medicine.[6][7] China produces some 80% of the world supply of garlic.

The word garlic derives from Old English, garlec, meaning gar (spear) and leek, as a ‘spear-shaped leek’.[8]

Allium sativum is a bulbous plant, growing up to 1 metre (3.3 ft) in height.[6] Its hardiness is USDA Zone 8. It produces hermaphrodite flowers. It is pollinated by bees, butterflies, moths, and other insects.[9]

Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalized. The “wild garlic”, “crow garlic”, and “field garlic” of Britain are members of the species Allium ursinum, Allium vineale, and Allium oleraceum, respectively. Identification of the wild progenitor of common garlic is difficult, due to the sterility of its many cultivars which may all be descended from the species Allium longicuspis, which grows wild in central and southwestern Asia.[10][11][12] There are at least 120 cultivars originating from Central Asia, making it the main center of garlic biodiversity.[13]

In North America, Allium vineale (known as “wild garlic” or “crow garlic”) and Allium canadense, known as “meadow garlic” or “wild garlic” and “wild onion”, are common weeds in fields.[14] So-called elephant garlic is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum), and not a true garlic. Single clove garlic (also called pearl or solo garlic) originated in the Yunnan province of China.

Flower head

Some garlics have protected status in Europe, including:[citation needed]

Name Source
Aglio Rosso di Nubia (Red Garlic of Nubia) Nubia-Paceco, Provincia di Trapani, Sicily, Italy
Aglio Bianco Polesano Veneto, Italy (PDO)
Aglio di Voghiera Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna, Italy (PDO)
Ail blanc de Lomagne Lomagne in the Gascony, France (PGI)
Ail de la Drôme Drôme, France (PGI)
Ail rose de Lautrec, a rose/pink garlic Lautrec, France (PGI)
Ajo Morado de las Pedroñeras, a rose/pink garlic Las Pedroñeras, Spain (PGI)

Italian garlic

Bulbs

There are two subspecies of A. sativum,[15] ten major groups of varieties, and hundreds of varieties or cultivars.

  • A. sativum var. ophioscorodon (Link) Döll, called Ophioscorodon, or hard-necked garlic, includes porcelain garlics, rocambole garlic, and purple stripe garlics. It is sometimes considered to be a separate species, Allium ophioscorodon G.Don.
  • A. sativum var. sativum, or soft-necked garlic, includes artichoke garlic, silverskin garlic, and creole garlic.

Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates.[16] While sexual propagation of garlic is possible, nearly all of the garlic in cultivation is propagated asexually, by planting individual cloves in the ground.[11] In colder climates, cloves are planted in the autumn, about six weeks before the soil freezes, and harvested in late spring or early summer. The cloves must be planted deep enough to prevent freeze/thaw, which causes mold or white rot.[17]

Garlic plants can be grown closely together, leaving enough space for the bulbs to mature, and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. Garlic does well in loose, dry, well-drained soils in sunny locations, and is hardy throughout USDA climate zones 4–9. When selecting garlic for planting, it is important to pick large bulbs from which to separate cloves. Large cloves, along with proper spacing in the planting bed, will also increase bulb size. Garlic plants prefer to grow in a soil with a high organic materialcontent, but are capable of growing in a wide range of soil conditions and pH levels.[11]

There are different varieties or subspecies of garlic, most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic.[16] The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the choice of type, as garlic can be day-length sensitive. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates and produces relatively large cloves, whereas softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator and produces small, tightly-packed cloves.[16]

Garlic scapes are removed to focus all the garlic’s energy into bulb growth. The scapes can be eaten raw or cooked.[17][18]

Garlic plants are usually hardy and not affected by many pests or diseases. Garlic plants are said to repel rabbits and moles.[3] However, pathogens that affect garlic are nematodes and wood-decay fungus, which remain in the soil indefinitely after the ground has become infected.[11] Garlic may also suffer from pink root, a typically non-fatal disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red;[19] leek rot; or downy mildew.[16] The larvae of the leek moth attack garlic by mining into the leaves or bulbs.[20]

Garlic production, 2016
Country Production
(millions of tonnes)
 China
21.2
 India
1.4
 Bangladesh
0.38
 European Union
0.3
 Egypt
0.28
 South Korea
0.28
 Russia
0.26
World
26.6
May include official, semi-official or estimated data
Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization[21]

In 2016, world production of garlic was 26.6 million tonnes, with China alone accounting for 80% of the total (table). India was the second largest producer with 5% of world production.[21]

The United States – ranked 10th in global production of garlic – grows less than 1% of China’s production.[21] Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered in Gilroy, California, which calls itself the “Garlic Capital of the World”.[22]

Garlic being crushed using a garlic press

A garlic bulb

String of garlic

Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.

The garlic plant’s bulb is the most commonly used part of the plant. With the exception of the single clove types, garlic bulbs are normally divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Garlic cloves are used for consumption (raw or cooked) or for medicinal purposes. They have a characteristic pungent, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking.[23]

Other parts of the garlic plant are also edible. The leaves and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are sometimes eaten. They are milder in flavor than the bulbs,[3] and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. Immature garlic is sometimes pulled, rather like a scallion, and sold as “green garlic”.[24] When green garlic is allowed to grow past the “scallion” stage, but not permitted to fully mature, it may produce a garlic “round”, a bulb like a boiling onion, but not separated into cloves like a mature bulb.[25] It imparts a garlic flavor and aroma in food, minus the spiciness. Green garlic is often chopped and stir-fried or cooked in soup or hot pot in Southeast Asian (i.e. Vietnamese, Thai, Myanmar, Lao, Cambodian, Singaporean), and Chinese cookery, and is very abundant and low-priced. Additionally, the immature flower stalks (scapes) of the hardneck and elephant types are sometimes marketed for uses similar to asparagus in stir-fries.[11]

Inedible or rarely eaten parts of the garlic plant include the “skin” covering each clove and root cluster. The papery, protective layers of “skin” over various parts of the plant are generally discarded during preparation for most culinary uses, though in Koreaimmature whole heads are sometimes prepared with the tender skins intact.[26] The root cluster attached to the basal plate of the bulb is the only part not typically considered palatable in any form. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb, coat the cloves by dribbling olive oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them, and roast them in an oven. Garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb, or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. In Korea, heads of garlic are heated over the course of several weeks; the resulting product, called black garlic, is sweet and syrupy, and is now being sold in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia.

Garlic may be applied to different kinds of bread, usually in a medium of butter or oil, to create a variety of classic dishes, such as garlic bread, garlic toast, bruschetta, crostini, and canapé. The flavor varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. It is often paired with onion, tomato, or ginger.

Immature scapes are tender and edible. They are also known as “garlic spears”, “stems”, or “tops”. Scapes generally have a milder taste than the cloves. They are often used in stir frying or braised like asparagus.[18] Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. The leaves are cut, cleaned, and then stir-fried with eggs, meat, or vegetables.

Garlic powder has a different taste from fresh garlic. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic, 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is approximate to one clove of garlic.

Green garlic

Garlic cloves pickled by simply storing them in vinegar in a refrigerator. This also yields garlic-infused vinegar to use in recipes or as a condiment.[27]

Garlic is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions, including eastern Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, northern Africa, southern Europe, and parts of Latin America.[citation needed] Latin American seasonings, particularly, use garlic in sofritos and mofongos.[28]

Oils can be flavored with garlic cloves. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables, meats, breads and pasta. Garlic, along with fish sauce, chopped fresh chilis, lime juice, sugar, and water, is a basic essential item in dipping fish sauce, a highly used dipping sauce condiment used in Indochina. In East and Southeast Asia, chili oil with garlic is a popular dipping sauce, especially for meat and seafood. Tuong ot toi Viet Nam (Vietnam chili garlic sauce) is a highly popular condiment and dip across North America and Asia.

In some cuisines, the young bulbs are pickled for three to six weeks in a mixture of sugar, salt, and spices. In eastern Europe, the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. Laba garlic, prepared by soaking garlic in vinegar, is a type of pickled garlic served with dumplingsin northern China to celebrate the Chinese New Year.[2]

Garlic is essential in Middle Eastern and Arabic cooking, with its presence in many food items. In Levantine countries such as Jordan, Palestine, and Lebanon, garlic is traditionally crushed together with olive oil, and occasionally salt, to create a Middle Eastern garlic sauce called Toum (تُوم; meaning “garlic” in Arabic). While not exclusively served with meats, toum is commonly paired with chicken, or other meat dishes such as shawarma. Garlic is also a key component in hummus, an Arabic dip composed of chickpeas, tahini, garlic, lemon juice, and salt.

Lightly smoked garlic is used in British and other European cuisine. It is particularly prized for stuffing poultry and game, and in soups and stews.

Emulsifying garlic with olive oil produces aioli. Garlic, oil, and a chunky base produce skordalia. Blending garlic, almond, oil, and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. Tzatziki, yogurt mixed with garlic and salt, is a common sauce in Eastern Mediterranean cuisines.

Domestically, garlic is stored warm [above 18 °C (64 °F)] and dry to keep it dormant (to inhibit sprouting). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands called plaits or grappes. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[29] Commercially, garlic is stored at 0 °C (32 °F), in a dry, low-humidity environment. Garlic will keep longer if the tops remain attached.[11]

Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavored oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling which may include rancidity and growth of Clostridium botulinum.[30] Acidification with a mild solution of vinegar minimizes bacterial growth.[30] Refrigeration does not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil, requiring use within one month to avoid bacterial spoilage.[30]

The use of garlic in China dates back thousands of years.[2] It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Eclogues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galeneulogized it as the “rustic’s theriac” (cure-all) (see F. Adams’ Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright’s edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), discussed it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man). According to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. In his Natural History, Pliny gives a list of scenarios in which garlic was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). In the 17th century Dr Thomas Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and William Cullen’s Materia Medica of 1789 [31] found some dropsies cured by it alone.

Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe.[32] Translations of the c. 1300 Assize of Weights and Measures indicate a passage as dealing with standardized units of garlic production, sale, and taxation — the hundred of 15 ropes of 15 heads each[33] – but the Latin version of the text refers to herring rather than garlic.[34] Garlic was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[35]

Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 623 kJ (149 kcal)
Carbohydrates
33.06 g
Sugars 1 g
Dietary fiber 2.1 g
Fat
0.5 g
Protein
6.36 g
Vitamins Quantity%DV
Thiamine (B1)
17%

0.2 mg

Riboflavin (B2)
9%

0.11 mg

Niacin (B3)
5%

0.7 mg

Pantothenic acid (B5)
12%

0.596 mg

Vitamin B6
95%

1.2350 mg

Folate (B9)
1%

3 μg

Vitamin C
38%

31.2 mg

Minerals Quantity%DV
Calcium
18%

181 mg

Iron
13%

1.7 mg

Magnesium
7%

25 mg

Manganese
80%

1.672 mg

Phosphorus
22%

153 mg

Potassium
9%

401 mg

Sodium
1%

17 mg

Zinc
12%

1.16 mg

Other constituents Quantity
Water 59 g
selenium 14.2 μg

Link to USDA Database entry
  • Units
  • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

In the typical serving size of 1–3 cloves (3–9 grams), garlic provides no significant nutritional value, with the content of all essential nutrients below 10% of the Daily Value (DV) (table).[36] When expressed per 100 grams, garlic contains several nutrients in rich amounts (20% or more of the DV), including vitamins B6 and C, and the dietary minerals manganese and phosphorus. Per 100 gram serving, garlic is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of certain B vitamins, including thiamin and pantothenic acid, as well as the dietary minerals, calcium, iron, and zinc (table).

The composition of raw garlic is 59% water, 33% carbohydrates, 6% protein, 2% dietary fiber, and less than 1% fat.[36]

As of 2015, clinical research to determine the possible effects of consuming garlic on hypertension has found no clear effect.[37][38] A 2016 meta-analysis indicated there was no effect of garlic consumption on blood levels of lipoprotein(a), a biomarker of atherosclerosis.[39] Because garlic might reduce platelet aggregation, people taking anticoagulant medication are cautioned about consuming garlic.[7][40][41]

A 2016 meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies found a moderate inverse association between garlic intake and some cancers of the upper digestive tract.[42] Another meta-analysis found decreased rates of stomach cancer associated with garlic intake, but cited confounding factors as limitations for interpreting these studies.[43] Further meta-analyses found similar results on the incidence of stomach cancer by consuming allium vegetables including garlic.[44][45] A 2014 meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies found that garlic consumption was associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer in Korean people.[46]

A 2016 meta-analysis found no effect of garlic on colorectal cancer.[47] A 2014 meta-analysis found garlic supplements or allium vegetables to have no effect on colorectal cancers.[48]

A 2013 meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies found limited evidence for an association between higher garlic consumption and reduced risk of prostate cancer, but the studies were suspected as having publication bias.[49] A 2013 meta-analysis of epidemiological studies found garlic intake to be associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer.[49]

A 2014 Cochrane review[50] found insufficient evidence to determine the effects of garlic in preventing or treating the common cold.[50] Other reviews concluded a similar absence of high-quality evidence for garlic having a significant effect on the common cold.[7][51]

The sticky juice within the bulb cloves is used as an adhesive in mending glass and porcelain.[3] An environmentally benign garlic-derived polysulfide product is approved for use in the European Union (under Annex 1 of 91/414) and the UK as a nematicide and insecticide, including for use for control of cabbage root fly and red mite in poultry.[52]

Garlic is used as a fish and meat preservative, and displays antimicrobial effects at temperatures as high as 120 degree Celsius.[53][54]

Garlic is known to cause bad breath (halitosis) and body odor, described as a pungent “garlicky” smell to sweat.[6] This is caused by allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a volatile liquid which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic-derived sulfur compounds; from the blood it travels to the lungs[2] (and from there to the mouth, causing bad breath; see garlic breath) and skin, where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Studies have shown sipping milk at the same time as consuming garlic can significantly neutralize bad breath.[55] Mixing garlic with milk in the mouth before swallowing reduced the odor better than drinking milk afterward.[55] Plain water, mushrooms and basil may also reduce the odor; the mix of fat and water found in milk, however, was the most effective.[55]

The green, dry “folds” in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic,[6] produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl polysulfides, and vinyldithiins.[2] Aged garlic lacks allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine.

Some people suffer from allergies to garlic and other species of Allium.[2] Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and, in rare cases, anaphylaxis.[6] Garlic-sensitive people show positive tests to diallyl disulfide, allylpropyldisulfide, allylmercaptan and allicin, all of which are present in garlic. People who suffer from garlic allergies are often sensitive to many other plants, including onions, chives, leeks, shallots, garden lilies, ginger, and bananas.

Several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes, including naturopathic uses and acne treatment, indicate care must be taken for these uses, usually testing a small area of skin using a low concentration of garlic.[56] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns, including burns to children, topical use of raw garlic, as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities, is discouraged.[6] In particular, topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable.[57]

The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation are largely unknown.[6] Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort, sweating, dizziness, allergic reactions, bleeding, and menstrual irregularities.[7]

Some breastfeeding mothers have found, after consuming garlic, that their babies can be slow to feed, and have noted a garlic odor coming from them.[6][58]

If higher-than-recommended doses of garlic are taken with anticoagulant medications, this can lead to a higher risk of bleeding.[6][59] Garlic may interact with warfarin,[6]saquinavir, antihypertensives, calcium channel blockers, the quinolone family of antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, and hypoglycemic drugs, as well as other medications.[58] Alliums might be toxic to cats or dogs.[60]

In folklore, garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. In Europe, many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic, perhaps owing to its reputation in folk medicine.[7] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons, werewolves, and vampires. To ward off vampires, garlic could be worn, hung in windows, or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes.[61][62]

In the foundation myth of the ancient Korean kingdom of Gojoseon, eating nothing but 20 cloves of garlic and a bundle of Korean mugwort for 100 days let a bear be transformed into a woman.[63]

In Iranian countries which celebrate Nowruz (Persian calendar New Year) such as Iran, the Caucasus countries, Afghanistan, and Central Asian countries such as Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, garlic is one of the items in a Seven-Seen table, a traditional New Year’s display.

In Islam, it is recommended not to eat raw garlic prior to going to the mosque. This is based on several hadith.[64][65]

In both Hinduism and Jainism, garlic is thought to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one’s desires. Some devout Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods, while less devout followers may only observe this for religious festivities and events. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis.

In some Buddhist traditions, garlic – along with the other five “pungent spices” – is understood to stimulate sexual and aggressive drives to the detriment of meditationpractice. In Mahayana Buddhism, monks and nuns are not allowed to consume garlic or other pungent spices such as chili, which are deemed as being “earthly pleasures” and are viewed as promoting aggression due to their spiciness and pungency.

Alliin, a sulfur-containing compound found in garlic.

Fresh or crushed garlic yields the sulfur-containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallyl polysulfides, vinyldithiins, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, saponins, flavonoids, and Maillard reaction products, which are not sulfur-containing compounds.

The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant’s cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids (cytosol).[citation needed] The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to react over time. Among the members of the onion family, garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products, making garlic much more potent than onion, shallot, or leeks.[66] Although many humans enjoy the taste of garlic, these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism, deterring animals such as birds, insects, and worms from eating the plant.[67] Because of this, people throughout history have used garlic to keep away insects such as mosquitoes and slugs.[citation needed]

A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the “hot” sensation of raw garlic. This chemical opens thermo-transient receptor potential channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin, thus mellowing its spiciness.[67] Allicin, along with its decomposition products diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, are major contributors to the characteristic odor of garlic, with other allicin-derived compounds, such as vinyldithiins and ajoene.[2] Because of its strong odor, garlic is sometimes called the “stinking rose”. When eaten in quantity, garlic may be strongly evident in the diner’s sweat and garlic breath the following day. This is because garlic’s strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized, forming allyl methyl sulfide. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. It is carried to the lungs and the skin, where it is excreted. Since digestion takes several hours, and release of AMS several hours more, the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time.[2]

The well-known phenomenon of “garlic breath” is allegedly alleviated by eating fresh parsley.[68] The herb is, therefore, included in many garlic recipes, such as pistou, persillade, and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread.

Because of the AMS in the bloodstream, it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent, but no clinically reported evidence suggests it is actually effective.[69]

Abundant sulfur compounds in garlic are also responsible for turning garlic green or blue during pickling and cooking. Under these conditions (i.e. acidity, heat) the sulfur-containing compound alliin react with common amino acids to make pyrroles, clusters of carbon-nitrogen rings.[70][71] These rings can be linked together into polypyrrolemolecules. Ring structures absorb particular wavelengths of light and thus appear colored. The two-pyrrole molecule looks red, the three-pyrrole molecule looks blue and the four-pyrrole molecule looks green (like chlorophyll, a tetrapyrrole). Like chlorophyll, the pyrrole pigments are safe to eat.[72]

Upon cutting, similar to a color change in onion caused by reactions of amino acids with sulfur compounds,[73] garlic can turn green.[74][75]

  1. ^ Allium sativum L”. Kewscience; Plants of the World Online; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  2. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Block, Eric (2010). Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-190-9.
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b c d “Substance Info: Garlic”. All Allergy. Zing Solutions. Archived from the original on June 15, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  4. ^ “Allium sativum L. | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science”. Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 2018-10-31.
  5. ^ Block, Eric (2010). Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 5–6. ISBN 9780854041909.
  6. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j “Garlic”. Drugs.com. 20 August 2018. Retrieved 31 October2018.
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e “Garlic”. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. April 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
  8. ^ “garlic (n.)”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  9. ^ Meredith, Ted Jordan; Drucker, Avram. “Growing Garlic from True Seed”. Blogspot: Garlic Analecta. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
  10. ^ Zohary, Daniel; Hopf, Maria (2000). Domestication of Plants in the Old World, 3rd edition. Oxford University Press (published January 11, 2001). p. 197. ISBN 978-0-19-850357-6.
  11. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Voss, Ronald E. (July 1995). “Small Farm News Archive”. UC Davis Small Farm Center. Archived from the original on March 13, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  12. ^ Salunkhe, D.K.; Kadam, S.S., eds. (1998-03-19). Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology: Production, Compostion, Storage, and Processing. Marcel Dekker (published March 19, 1998). p. 397. ISBN 978-0-8247-0105-5.
  13. ^ Kamenetsky, R., London Shafir, I., Khassanov, F.; et al. (2005). “Diversity in fertility potential and organo-sulphur compounds among garlics from Central Asia”. Biodivers Conserv. 14 (2): 281–295. doi:10.1007/s10531-004-5050-9.
  14. ^ McGee p. 112
  15. ^ Allium sativum. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture(USDA). Retrieved December 10, 2017.
  16. ^ Jump up to: a b c d “Garlic”. London, UK: The Royal Horticultural Society. 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  17. ^ Jump up to: a b Tortorello, Michael (September 29, 2010). “The Cult of the Cloves”. The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2010. You sow it in fall, not spring. The plant often forms strange curling stalks, or ‘scapes’, with odd nodules called umbels. These rococo growths contain their own minicloves called bulbils.
  18. ^ Jump up to: a b Clark, Melissa (June 18, 2008). “A Garlic Festival Without a Single Clove”. The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2010. Garlic scapes are pencil thin and exuberantly loopy, and emanate a clean and mildly garlicky scent. … They had a gently spicy undertone and an exquisitely fresh green, mellow taste. Unlike regular garlic, which needs some kind of vehicle to carry its intense flavor to the mouth, scapes are self-sufficient; vegetable and aromatic all in one.
  19. ^ “UC IPM: UC Management Guidelines for Pink Root on Onion and Garlic”. Ipm.ucdavis.edu. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  20. ^ Landry, Jean-François (June 2007). “Taxonomic review of the leek moth genus Acrolepiopsis (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae) in North America”. The Canadian Entomologist. 139 (3): 319–353. doi:10.4039/n06-098. ISSN 1918-3240.
  21. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Garlic production in 2016: Crops/World Regions/Production Quantity (from pick lists)”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  22. ^ “City of Gilroy: a community with a spice for life”. City of Gilroy, California. 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  23. ^ Katzer, Gernot (August 8, 2009). “Garlic (Allium sativum L.)”. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
  24. ^ Thompson, Sylvia (1997). The Kitchen Garden Cookbook. Bantam Books. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-553-37476-6.
  25. ^ Thompson, Sylvia (1997). The Kitchen Garden Cookbook. Bantam Books. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-553-37476-6.
  26. ^ Amanda. “Glossary of Foods and Food Terms in Korea”. Food-links.com. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  27. ^ McClellan, Marisa (November 1, 2011). “In a Pickle: Pickled Garlic”. Serious Eats. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
  28. ^ Root, Zella Palmer Cuadra; photographs by Natalie (2013). New Orleans con sabor Latino : the history and passion of Latino cooking (Online-Ausg. ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-62103-984-6.
  29. ^ Harris, Linda J. “Garlic: Safe Methods to Store, Preserve, and Enjoy” (PDF). University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
  30. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Safe Homemade Flavored and Infused Oils”. Food Safety Facts. Orono, ME: Cooperative Extension Publications, University of Maine. 2011.
  31. ^ Cullen 1789, vol.ii. p. 174.
  32. ^ Renoux, Victoria (January 1, 2005). For the Love of Garlic: The Complete Guide to Garlic Cuisine. Square One Publishers, Inc. pp. 21–25. ISBN 9780757000874.
  33. ^ Statutes of the Realm, Vol. I, London: G. Eyre & A. Strahan, 1810, p. 204
  34. ^ Ruffhead, Owen, ed. (1763a), The Statutes at Large, Vol. I: From Magna Charta to the End of the Reign of King Henry the Sixth. To which is prefixed, A Table of the Titles of all the Publick and Private Statutes during that Time, London: Mark Basket for the Crown, pp. 148–149. (in English) & (in Latin) & (in Norman)
  35. ^ Tattelman, Ellen (July 1, 2005). “Health Effects of Garlic” (PDF). American Family Physician. 72 (1): 103–106. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
  36. ^ Jump up to: a b “Nutrition facts for raw garlic, USDA National Nutrient Database, version SR-21”. Condé Nast. 2014. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
  37. ^ Rohner, Andres; Ried, Karin; Sobenin, Igor A.; Bucher, Heiner C.; Nordmann, Alain J. (March 1, 2015). “A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of garlic preparations on blood pressure in individuals with hypertension”. American Journal of Hypertension. 28 (3): 414–423. doi:10.1093/ajh/hpu165. ISSN 1941-7225. PMID 25239480.
  38. ^ Stabler, Sarah N.; Tejani, Aaron M.; Huynh, Fong; Fowkes, Claire (August 2012). “Garlic for the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8 (8): CD007653. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007653.pub2. PMID 22895963.
  39. ^ Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Corina; Ursoniu, Sorin; Banach, Maciej (2016). “Effect of garlic on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials”. Nutrition. 32 (1): 33–40. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2015.06.009. ISSN 0899-9007. PMID 26522661.
  40. ^ Rahman, Khalid (November 2007). “Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology”. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 51 (11): 1335–44. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700058. PMID 17966136.
  41. ^ Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A. (November 2007). “Garlic (Allium sativum L.): Adverse effects and drug interactions in humans”. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 51 (11): 1386–97. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700072. PMID 17918162.
  42. ^ Guercio, Valentina; Turati, Federica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Galeone, Carlotta; Tavani, Alessandra (2016). “Allium vegetables and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies”. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (published October 14, 2015). 60 (1): 212–222. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201500587. ISSN 1613-4133. PMID 26464065.
  43. ^ Zhou, Yong; Zhuang, Wen; Hu, Wen; Liu, Guan-Jian; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Wu, Xiao-Ting (July 1, 2011). “Consumption of Large Amounts of Allium Vegetables Reduces Risk for Gastric Cancer in a Meta-analysis”. Gastroenterology. 141 (1): 80–89. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.03.057. ISSN 1528-0012. PMID 21473867.
  44. ^ Kodali, R. T.; Eslick, Guy D. (2015). “Meta-Analysis: Does Garlic Intake Reduce Risk of Gastric Cancer?”. Nutrition and Cancer (published November 20, 2014). 67(1): 1–11. doi:10.1080/01635581.2015.967873. ISSN 1532-7914. PMID 25411831.
  45. ^ Turati, Federica; Guercio, Valentina; Pelucchi, Claudio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Galeone, Carlotta (September 1, 2014). “Colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps in relation to allium vegetables intake: A meta-analysis of observational studies”. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 58 (9): 1907–1914. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201400169. ISSN 1613-4133. PMID 24976533.
  46. ^ Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Kyungwon, Oh; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon (2014). “Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta-analysis” (PDF). Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 15 (19): 8509–19. doi:10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.19.8509. PMID 25339056.
  47. ^ Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto (1 February 2016). “Garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk in man: a systematic review and meta-analysis” (PDF). Public Health Nutrition. 19 (2): 308–317. doi:10.1017/S1368980015001263. ISSN 1475-2727. PMID 25945653.
  48. ^ Zhu, Beibei; Zou, Li; Qi, Lu; Zhong, Rong; Miao, Xiaoping (December 1, 2014). “Allium vegetables and garlic supplements do not reduce risk of colorectal cancer, based on meta-analysis of prospective studies”. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 12 (12): 1991–2001.e1–4, quiz e121. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2014.03.019. ISSN 1542-7714. PMID 24681077.
  49. ^ Jump up to: a b Zhou, Xiao-Feng; Ding, Zhen-Shan; Liu, Nai-Bo (2013). “Allium Vegetables and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Evidence from 132,192 Subjects” (PDF). Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 14 (7): 4131–4134. doi:10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.7.4131. ISSN 1513-7368. PMID 23991965. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 30, 2015.
  50. ^ Jump up to: a b Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L.; Cohen, Marc (November 2014). “Garlic for the common cold”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 11 (11): CD006206. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006206.pub4. PMID 25386977.
  51. ^ Allan, G. Michael; Arroll, Bruce (2014). “Prevention and treatment of the common cold: making sense of the evidence”. Canadian Medical Association Journal(published February 18, 2014). 186 (3): 190–9. doi:10.1503/cmaj.121442. PMC 3928210. PMID 24468694.
  52. ^ Anwar, Awais; Groom, Murree; Sadler-Bridge, David (June 2009). “Garlic: from nature’s ancient food to nematicide” (PDF). Pesticide News. 84 (June): 18–20.
  53. ^ Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Saha, Proud; Rakshit, Madhumita; Ramalingam, C. (2012). “Comparative study of antibacterial activity of garlic and cinnamon at different temperature and its application on preservation of fish”(PDF). Advances in Applied Science Research. 3 (1): 495–501. ISSN 0976-8610.
  54. ^ Verma, Vipul; Singh, Rachana; Tiwari, Rajesh K.; Srivastava, Navneet; Verma, Alpika (2012). “Antibacterial activity of extracts of Citrus, Allium & Punica against food borne spoilage” (PDF). Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research. 2 (4): 503–509. ISSN 2249-7412.
  55. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Drinking a glass of milk can stop garlic breath”. BBC News. August 31, 2010. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  56. ^ Baruchin, A.M.; Sagi, A.; Yoffe, B.; Ronen, M. (2001). “Garlic burns”. Burns(published November 2001). 27 (7): 781–2. doi:10.1016/S0305-4179(01)00039-0. PMID 11600262.
  57. ^ Garty BZ (1993). “Garlic burns”. Pediatrics (published March 1993). 91 (3): 658–9. PMID 8441577.
  58. ^ Jump up to: a b Hogg, Jennifer (December 13, 2002). “Garlic Supplements” (PDF). Complementary Medicines Summary. UK Medicines Information, National Health Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2007. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
  59. ^ Brown, Deanna G.; Wilkerson, Eric C.; Love, W. Elliot (2015). “A review of traditional and novel oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy for dermatologists and dermatologic surgeons”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology(published March 2015). 72 (3): 524–34. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2014.10.027. PMID 25486915.
  60. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets Archived January 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association.
  61. ^ McNally, Raymond T.; Florescu, Radu (1994). In Search of Dracula: The History of Dracula and Vampires. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 120–122. ISBN 978-0-395-65783-6.
  62. ^ Pickering, David (2003). Cassell’s Dictionary of Superstitions. Sterling Publishing. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-304-36561-6.
  63. ^ Pettid, Michael J. (2008). Korean Cuisine: An Illustrated History. London: Reaktion Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-86189-348-2.
  64. ^ “Hadith – Book of Call to Prayers (Adhaan) – Sahih al-Bukhari – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)”. Sunnah.
  65. ^ “Hadith – The Book of Mosques and Places of Prayer – Sahih Muslim – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)”. Sunnah.
  66. ^ McGee, pp. 310–311
  67. ^ Jump up to: a b Macpherson, Lindsey J.; Geierstanger, Bernhard H.; Viswanath, Veena; Bandell, Michael; Eid, Samer R.; Hwang, SunWook; Patapoutian, Ardem (2005). “The Pungency of Garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in Response to Allicin” (PDF). Current Biology (published May 24, 2005). 15 (10): 929–34. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.04.018. PMID 15916949.
  68. ^ “garlic”. Food Dictionary, Epicurious.com. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  69. ^ Rutledge, C. Roxanne; Day, Jonathan F. (2014-08-08). “Mosquito Repellents”. University of Florida IFAS Extension. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013.
  70. ^ Imai, Shinsuke; Akita, Kaori; Tomotake, Muneaki; Sawada, Hiroshi (2006). “Model Studies on Precursor System Generating Blue Pigment in Onion and Garlic”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54 (3): 848–852. doi:10.1021/jf051980f. PMID 16448193.
  71. ^ Cho, Jungeun; Lee, Seung Koo; Patil, B.S.; Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun (2009). “Separation of blue pigments in crushed garlic cloves: the color-forming potential of individual amino acids”. II International Symposium on Human Health Effects of Fruits and Vegetables: FAVHEALTH 2007 (841): 491–494. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2009.841.66.
  72. ^ McGee, Harold (December 6, 2006). “When Science Sniffs Around the Kitchen”. Curious Cook.
  73. ^ Lee, Eun Jin; Rezenom, Yohannes H.; Russell, David H.; Patil, Bhimanagouda S.; Yoo, Kil Sun (April 1, 2012). “Elucidation of chemical structures of pink-red pigments responsible for ‘pinking’ in macerated onion (Allium cepa L.) using HPLC–DAD and tandem mass spectrometry”. Food Chemistry. 131 (3): 852–861. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.09.059.
  74. ^ Cho, Jungeun; Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Seung Koo; Patil, Bhimanagouda S. (January 1, 2009). “Identification of Candidate Amino Acids Involved in the Formation of Blue Pigments in Crushed Garlic Cloves (Allium sativum L.)”. Journal of Food Science. 74 (1): C11–C16. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00986.x. ISSN 1750-3841. PMID 19200080.
  75. ^ Lukes, T. M. (1986). “Factors Governing the Greening of Garlic Puree”. Journal of Food Science (published November 1986). 51 (6): 1577. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1986.tb13869.x. ISSN 1750-3841.

  • McGee, Harold (2004). “The Onion Family: Onions, Garlic, Leeks”. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. pp. 310–3. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1.

 

Translate »
error: Content is protected !!