Recent Discovery of a DNA Repair Enzyme that removes Bulky Lesions: Significance for Cancer Control, Reversal & a Happy Longevity

The activation of self-repair mechanisms is key in Holistic Medicine. After introducing where we are at in terms of DNA self-repair mechanisms (Section A), I will go into new DNA repair mechanisms that have been identified (Section B). Thereafter, i will look at the historical and holistic context of this important biomedical field and draft a short conclusion. (Section C).

Section A

Enzymes can Remove Damaged DNA Bases for the benefit of the Genome

There can be no secure Happy JDV Consciousness if we are daily bombarded with low frequency bad news, including, but not limited wit cancer statistics, a subject that tends to scare most people given it’s prevalence, that nearly one in two Americans will get hit with a cancer diagnosis and all of what this implies in terms of invasive allopathic interventions.

Up until now, Scientists have discovered ten DNA repair pathways, one of which was the object of  the 2015 Nobel prize in chemistry. In this perspective, Nature  published a piece showing the existence of  yet another DNA repair pathway (via the AlkD enzyme), one that is closely related to the repair mechanisms of soil bacteria enzymes. (1) (See also Exhibit A)  This discovery has conventional allopathic clinical relevance because these enzymes could be reducing the effectiveness of drugs designed to kill cancer cells, thereby further aggravating the “chemoresistance” dilemma.

The newly discovered DNA repair enzyme is a DNA glycosylase,  a family of enzymes discovered by Tomas Lindahl, who received the 2015 Nobel prize for recognizing that these enzymes removed damaged DNA bases through a process called base-excision repair. (2)

Section  B

New mechanism of DNA Repair: Recognition, Reparation and Removal

Contrarily to the base excision repair mechanism that was found by the Nobel laureate, the present discoverers in this experiment (See below) found that this enzyme does not require base flipping to recognize damaged DNA or repair it. (3)

What these scientists have determined  is that this AlkD enzyme forms a series of interactions with the DNA backbone at or around the lesion while the damage is still  embedded within the double helix.

Several of these interactions are contributed by only three amino acids in the enzyme that catalyze excision of the damaged base. Its characteristics are as follows:

1. Recognition of damaged bases indirectly by identifying lesions without contacting the damaged base itself.

2. Reparation of many different types of lesions as long as they are positively charged. (4)

3. Removal of much bulkier lesions than other glycosylases. (Base excision repair is generally limited to relatively small lesions). (5).

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Top: The DNA Double helix Structure

Section C

Historical  and Holistic Context

When the structure of DNA was first discovered, (6) scientists thought it was chemically stable. Since this time,  most biologists have learned that the double helix is embedded within an epigenetic context that makes it a highly reactive molecule that is constantly being damaged  and that cells must make unceasing repair efforts to protect the genetic information that it contains.

If DNA were too reactive then it wouldn’t be capable of storing genetic information. But then, if it were too stable,  it wouldn’t allow organisms to evolve and epigenetics would be science fiction.

This is where Holistic Medicine comes in, a type of healing art that maximizes harmonious biochemical and biophysical homeostasis while minimizing oxidative stress, inflammation and telomere shortening.


Given the continued onslaught of DNA damage that comes from endogenous sources (7) as well as from modern societies and the environment, including, but not limited to ultraviolet light, toxic chemicals and ionizing radiation, all of which are mutagenic,  medical science and cancer research must find both innovative and holistic means to better promote the expression of as many DNA repair mechanisms and pathways as possible. (8)

More than 10,000 DNA damage events occur each day in every cell of the human body that must be repaired for the DNA to function properly.

Because many cancer drugs destroy and alter DNA within cancer cells, these malignant cells often find ways to repair said damages, thus aggravating the “chemoresistance” problem, inter alia.

It therefore makes sense to combine innovative and holistic techniques to encourage the body’s innate intelligence to better address DNA reparation. (See the Institute’s workshops for certain modalities).

Christian Joubert CSO & HMI Director

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(1).  Elwood A. Mullins, Rongxin Shi, Zachary D. Parsons, Philip K. Yuen, Sheila S. David, Yasuhiro Igarashi, Brandt F. Eichman. The DNA glycosylase AlkD uses a non-base-flipping mechanism to excise bulky lesions. Nature, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/nature15728
(2) In base-excision repair, a specific glycosylase molecule binds to DNA at the location of a lesion and bends the double-helix in a way that causes the damaged base to flip from the inside of the helix to the outside. The enzyme fits around the flipped out base and holds it in a position that exposes its link to the DNA’s sugar backbone, allowing the enzyme to detach it. After the damaged base has been removed, additional DNA-repair proteins move in to replace it with a pristine base.
(3). Seven years ago, Eichman’s group discovered that AlkD had a structure unlike any of the other glycosylases. The researchers determined that the enzyme was able to locate damaged DNA that has a positive electrical charge. This is the signature of alkylation, attaching chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms of varying lengths (methyl, ethyl etc.), to specific positions on the damaged base. Positively charged alkylated bases are among the most abundant and detrimental forms of DNA damage. However, they are highly unstable, which has made them very difficult to study.
Now the researchers have captured crystallographic sn
4). By contrast, the base-flipping mechanism used by other glycosylases relies on a relatively tight binding pocket in the enzyme, so each glycosylase is designed to work with a limited number of lesions.
(5). A different pathway, called nucleotide excision repair, handles larger lesions like those caused by UV radiation damage. However, Eichman’s team discovered that AlkD could excise extremely bulky lesions, such as the one caused by the antibiotic yatakemycin, which is beyond the capability of other glycosylases.
(6). By Watson and Criket. (2). The DNA double-helix has a spiral staircase structure with the outer edges made from sugar and phosphate molecules joined by stair steps composed of pairs of four nucleotide bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine) that serve as the basic letters in the genetic code.
(7). Including but not limited to the cell’s own metabolites (the chemicals it produces during normal metabolism), reactive oxygen species and even water.
(8). The 2015 Nobel Prize in chemistry was given to three scientists who each focused on one piece of the DNA repair puzzle.
The DNA glycosylase AlkD uses a non-base-flipping mechanism to excise bulky lesions
Elwood A. Mullins, Rongxin Shi, Zachary D. Parsons, Philip K. Yuen, Sheila S. David, Yasuhiro Igarashi & Brandt F. Eichman
Nature (2015) doi:10.1038/nature15728
Received 22 July 2015 Accepted 18 September 2015 Published online 28 October 2015
Threats to genomic integrity arising from DNA damage are mitigated by DNA glycosylases, which initiate the base excision repair pathway by locating and excising aberrant nucleobases1, 2. How these enzymes find small modifications within the genome is a current area of intensive research. A hallmark of these and other DNA repair enzymes is their use of base flipping to sequester modified nucleotides from the DNA helix and into an active site pocket2, 3, 4, 5. Consequently, base flipping is generally regarded as an essential aspect of lesion recognition and a necessary precursor to base excision. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, DNA glycosylase mechanism that does not require base flipping for either binding or catalysis. Using the DNA glycosylase AlkD from Bacillus cereus, we crystallographically monitored excision of an alkylpurine substrate as a function of time, and reconstructed the steps along the reaction coordinate through structures representing substrate, intermediate and product complexes. Instead of directly interacting with the damaged nucleobase, AlkD recognizes aberrant base pairs through interactions with the phosphoribose backbone, while the lesion remains stacked in the DNA duplex. Quantum mechanical calculations revealed that these contacts include catalytic charge–dipole and CH–π interactions that preferentially stabilize the transition state. We show in vitro and in vivo how this unique means of recognition and catalysis enables AlkD to repair large adducts formed by yatakemycin, a member of the duocarmycin family of antimicrobial natural products exploited in bacterial warfare and chemotherapeutic trials6, 7. Bulky adducts of this or any type are not excised by DNA glycosylases that use a traditional base-flipping mechanism5. Hence, these findings represent a new model for DNA repair and provide insights into catalysis of base excision.


Copyright (c) Happiness Medicine Institute and agents.
DISCLAIMER: Nothing in this educational post should be construed to be medical advise.

The Happiness Medicine Institute's central mission is centered on shouldering the masses (ie majority of People including, but not limited to the low and modest income categories) to meet their fundamental human birth-right of living a fulfilling, healthy and an evolutionarily designed Lifespan of 120 years and beyond. The only son of a Polish Jew mother and a Catholic Frenchmen father from Bordeaux, Christian and has come to the US, like Lafayette, to share the best of French and European experiences with Americans in order to beat the "enemy". In the 18th century, Lafayette, Rochambeau and France were the decisive forces that toppled those nasty British imperialists in Yorktown, thanks to which American sovereignty was made possible. In the 21st century, the "enemy" is chronic stress and an American food, medical and public health system that is un-necessarily maiming and killing Americans by the millions each year. Once (and if) the official standards of care become consistent with the People's basic needs and with the best Science, then Christian's mission will have been accomplished. In terms of bio, Christian was trained in French conventional medicine, Chinese acupuncture, European naturopathy, law, wine and a few other disciplines. He has partaken in thousands of seminars and conferences to corroborate what the safest, most efficient and cost friendly health restoration and lifespan techniques are. To this end, Christian established a research and education center called happiness medicine institute. A former law professor (Paris and Gonzaga School of Law), organic agriculture farmer (certified by Ecocert), professor of holistic oncology, naturopath and director of other health centers, Christian has been specializing for over twenty years in geroscience and biogerontology as both these "optimal longevity" fields of the Health Sciences are much more "holistic" and useful than conventional medicine insofar as slowing down and reversing age-related pathologies is concerned, including the aging process itself. As a result, by better tweaking the aging process and its concomitant longevity determinants, we can modulate and resolve most chronic diseases, including cancer, auto-immunity, diabetes, mental disorders, cardiovascular events and much more. The only rampant malady holistic medicine is powerless to act upon is arrogance (ie, hubris). Thus, not everyone can benefit from Joubert's expertise. If motivated people comply to a holistic lifestyle with specific longevity and happiness techniques, they can die after having peacefully reached 120 without any chronic diseases. Over 95 percent of chronic diseases are completely avoidable. This claim is not constitutive of what is called a "false promise". The evidence is overwhelmingly established, but most pharmaceutical firms and their medical and political allies ignore these claims and-or are not interested, if only because Joubert's proposed holistic techniques do not generate enough cash-flow for corporate appetite to be satieted. This extension of time to 120 years and beyond will give People more opportunities to better enjoy Life (Joie de vivre) and build the conditions that will lead to a new, lasting, healthier and happier civilization based on the exact opposite values and mechanisms of most of today's outdated and irrational standards and systems. Christian investigates Science, medicine and any other phenomena with medically and legally trained eyes. And digs deep, through multiple layers of knowledge and via multiple fields of science, thank to which he is able to identify the inter-connectiveness of relevant issues and determine the key root cause (or causes) upon which the consultee can act. Thus, over 95 percent of published material and common clinical practice is weeded out in order to get to the “crème”, the quintessence, the clinical pearl or what jurists call the “therapeutic relevance” for the benefit of whatever the health challenge may be….. So don't hesitate to schedule an appointment with Christian before he goes away. By doing so, the consultee will learn innovative, safe, efficient and cost-friendly techniques to achieve a healthy lifespan of over 120 years, as the French Mediterranean lady, Jeanne Calment has, (ie, the book of Guinness confirms she is the longest living human ever and most people don't even know why), as the most successful "bleu zone" does (i.e., the French-cultured Principality of Monaco in the Mediterranean South has the most centenarians, most bleu zoners don't know this) and as the French culture and lifestyle have abundantly shown over the last 1600 years, including, but not limited to its Mediterranean diet, Lourdes, its wine, its thermal medicine as well as to its many other health promoting techniques including France's health-vacation spas and other "joie de vivre" institutions that substantially slow down the rate at which telomeres shorten while significantly upregulating (activating) the other eleven hallmarks of Optimal Longevity. Thus, it's not for nothing that the World Health Organization ranked France as having the best health-care system in the world. To read more on France's health-vacation spas and dozens of validated longevity techniques as well as on Christian’s mission and background, click “about” and examine the website's other links. To benefit in vivo from Christian Joubert’s medical, legal, inter-disciplinary and trans-cultural training and experience, CLICK the Consult LINK in the top menu bar. Thank you.

Posted in Cancer & Auto-Immune Diseases, Epigenetics & Genetics, Homeostasis, Self-Repair Mechanisms, Autophagy, Bio-Terrain, Microenvironment, Stem cells, Differentiation, Genomic Instability Biology

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